以 a 开头的数学词汇 | 玄数

2012-10-05

abacus   算盘

A frame with small balls which slide along wires. It is used as a tool or toy for counting.
abacus

 

 

abscissa  横坐标

In plane Cartesian coordinates, the x-coordinate of a point: its position from the origin (y axis) measured parallel to the x-axis.
abscissa

 

 

absolute value  绝对值

The absolute value of a real or complex number is the distance from that number to the origin. For any real number x the absolute value or modulus of x is denoted by |x|.
absolute value

 

 

acre  英亩
Exactly equal to 1⁄640 of a square mile, about 4,046 m2.

 

acute  锐角的

 

acute angle  锐角
The angle is smaller than a right angle (less than 90°)

 

acute triangle  锐角三角形
A triangle with all interior angles measuring less than 90°

 

add  加
Put numbers or amounts together to get a total.

 

addend  加数
An addend number which is involved in addition. Numbersbeing added are considered to be the addends.

 

addition  加法;增加
The process of adding two or more numbers together to find their total.

 

additive identity  加法恒等元,加法单位元
When added to any element x in the set, yields x. Usually the sum of the number x and 0 yields the same number.

 

additive inverse  加性逆元
The opposite of a number. For example, the additive inverse of 12 is -12.

 

adjacent  邻近的

 

adjacent angles  邻角, 同旁内角
Two angles are adjacent when they have a common side and acommon vertex (corner point), and don’t overlap.

 

algebra 代数
A type of mathematics in which letters and symbols are used to represent quantities. Such as: x + 5 = 13, x2 – y2 = 4.

 

algorithm  算法
A set of rules that must be followed when solving a particular problem.

 

alternate exterior angles  外错角
Created where a transversal crosses two lines. Each pair of these angles are outside the parallel lines, and on opposite sides of the transversal.

 

alternate interior angles  内错角
Created where a transversal crosses two lines. Each pair of these angles are inside the parallel lines, and on opposite sides of the transversal.

 

altitude  海拔,高度
The height above sea level.

 

AM  上午

 

amount  数量
A quantity of sth.

 

analog clock / analog Watch  针式台钟

 

angle  角
The space between two lines or two rays.

 

angle bisector  角平分线
Divides the angle into two angles with equal measures.

 

annual  周年
Happening or done once every year.

 

annual percentage rate (APR)  年百分率
Interest rate for a whole year.

 

annulus  环形
The region lying between two concentric circles. The area of the annulus formed by two circles of radius a and b (with a > b) is π(a2 – b2).

 

anticlockwise  逆时针方向
In the opposite direction to the movement of the hands of a clock.

 

apothem  边心距,圆心距
Given a circle, the apothem is the perpendicular distance from the midpoint of a chord to the circle’s center.

 

approximation  近似,近似值
An estimate of a number or an amount that is almost correct, but not exact.

 

arc  弧,弓形
Part of a circle or a curved line. Or a curved shape.

 

arc length  弧长
The length along a curve.

 

area  面积
The amount of space covered by a flat surface or piece of land, described as a measurement.

 

argument  参数
The most common usage refers to the argument of a function. An argument of a function f(x1, x2, … xn) is one of the n parameters on which the function’s value depends.

 

arithmetic  算术,四则运算
The type of mathematics that deals with numerical computation such as the adding, multiplying.

 

arithmetic sequence / arithmetic series  等差数列
A sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant. For instance, the sequence 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 … is an arithmetic progression with common difference of 2.

 

arm of an angle  角的临边

 

arrangement  排列
In general, an arrangement of objects is simply a grouping of them. The number of “arrangements” of n items is given either by a combination (order is ignored) or permutation (order is significant).

 

array  排列,矩阵
A way of organizing and storing related data in a computer memory, such as [1, 2, 5, 10], [ [1,2,3], [10, 20, 30] ]

 

ascending order  升序
Numbers are arranged from the smallest to the largest number. E.g. 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 are arranged in ascending order.

 

associative law  结合律
Giving the same result no matter what order the parts of a calculation are done, for example
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
(a × b) × c = a × (b × c)

 

assume  假定
To think or accept that sth is true but without having proof of it.

 

asymmetry  不对称
Not symmetry.

 

asymptote  渐近线
A line or curve that approaches a given curve arbitrarily closely, as illustrated in the above diagram.

 

attribute  属性
A quality or feature of sb / sth.

 

average  平均
Calculated by adding several amounts together, finding a total, and dividing the total by the number of amounts.

 

axis  轴 (复数 axes)
A line that divides a shape into two equal parts or an imaginary line through the centre of an object, around which the object rotate.

 

axis of symmetry  对称轴