定语从句 | 玄数

2018-12-27

SAT

Which of the following number sets has the property that the sum of any two numbers in the set is also in the set?
Ⅰ. Even integers
Ⅱ. Odd integers
Ⅲ. Composite numbers

A. Ⅰ
B. Ⅱ
C. Ⅲ
D. Ⅰ and Ⅱ
E. Ⅰ and Ⅲ
Answer
A. 以下哪个数字集合具有以下属性: 集合中任意两个数字的总和也在集合中?

一、先行词 + 关系词

在简单句中,定语可以由形容词、代词、数词、副词、介词、 动词不定式、动名词、分词来担任。而在复合句中,用一个从句来修饰一名词或代词,充当定语的从句叫定语从句,它还能修饰整个句子或主句的一部分。

1.  简单句

That is an English book. …………… 这是一本英语书。
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. …………… 珠穆朗玛峰是世界最高峰。

2.  定语从句

This is an English book whose cover is red. ………….. 这是一本封面是红色的英语书。
先行词 关系词

 

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world that is located in the area between … …
先行词 关系词

世界最高峰珠穆朗玛峰位于尼泊尔和西藏的交界地区。(between Nepal and Tibet. )

被修饰的词叫做先行词 Antecedent,引导定语从句的词叫 关系词 Relative

汉语中的定语放在被修饰的词的前面,通常表示为 ” …… 的 …… 的 “ + 被修饰词。而英语中的定语从句恰恰相反,用于修饰作用的从句放在后面,被修饰词放在前面,它先行一步,称为先行词。

二、关系代词 that,which,who,whom,whose

主格 宾格 定语
who,that whom,who,that whose
which,that which,that whose, of which

它们在定语从句中替代先行词,在从句中可以担任:主语、宾语、表语、定语。它们本身没有单复数之分,但当关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语的数要和先行词保持一致

The only thing is to listen music. +  I can do the only thing.
The only thing that I can do is to listen music. …….. 我唯一能做的事情就是听音乐。(that作宾语)
 
Dog is a kind of animal.  +  Dog is friendly and useful to human.
Dog is a kind of animal which is friendly and useful to human.
狗是一种对人类友好并且有用的动物。(which作主语).
 
There is a young man.  +  The young man want to see you.
There is a young man who wants to see you. …………… 有位年青人要见你。(who作宾主语)
 
The man is a doctor.  + I just spoke to the man.
The man whom I just spoke to is a doctor. …………. 刚才跟我说话的人是一位医生。(who作宾语).
 
Lily is dancing.  +  Her dress is very beautiful.
Lily is dancing whose dress is very beautiful. ….. 莉莉在跳舞,她的裙子很漂亮。(whose作定语)

三、关系副词 where,when,why

先行词 关系副词
地点(house、 school、 factory、 company、 city、 room) where
时间(the day、a time、具体时间) when
原因(reason) why

它们在定语从句中替代先行词,在从句中做状语

This is a company.  +  My brother works at the company.
This is the company where my brother works. ………… 这是我哥哥工作的公司。
 
I will never forget the day.  +  We have a good time on the beach at the day.
I will never forget the day when  we have a good time on the beach.
我永远不会忘记我们在海边上愉快的那一天。
 
The reason why Jack went to see Mr. King is he was late for school.
汤姆去见金先生的原因是他迟到了。

练习

翻译:
tangent   正切;切线

  • For a given angle in a right-angled triangle, a trigonometric function equal to the length of the side opposite the angle divided by the length of the adjacent side.
  • Let P be a point on a curve, the tangent to the curve at P is the line through P that touches the curve at P, but never cross or intersect the curve.

定语从句