教育 | 玄数

2018-12-29

SAT

At a dinner party each table can seat eight people. If 100 people attend the party, what is the minimum number of tables that are needed?

A. 12
B. 13
C. 14
D. 15
E. 16
Answer
B. 晚宴上的桌子每张可容纳8人. 如果有100人参加聚会,那么所需桌子的最小数目是多少?

一、使用被动语态的场合

1.  不知道或不必要说明动作的执行者

Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  ……………《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
A new house will be build here in the future. …………… 将来会有一座新房子在这儿被建造。

2.  不宜提出动作的执行者

About the project, much has been said but little has been done.
对于这个项目,说的多,做的少。

3.   强调动作的承受者

A wonderful museum has been built in Paris. ……….. 一座无与伦比的博物馆在巴黎建成了。
The first prize was won by Mary. …………… 一等奖由玛丽获得。

4.  It + be done + that 从句,it 作形式主语,意思为据说、据报导

It is reported that the weather tomorrow is very very bad. ………….. 据报导明天的天气相当差。
It is said that the cost of the dress would get higher. …………… 据说服装的价格会升高。

5.   be done + 不定式 to do

He was said to have disclosed the secret. …………… 据说他已经泄漏秘密了。
The bad weather is expected to stop right now. …………… 希望恶劣的天气就将打住吧。

6.   There + be done

There are supposed to be wild animals in the hills. …………… 有人猜想山上会有野生动物。

二、不使用被动语态的时候

1.   不及物动词不能用于被动语态,因为不及物,也就不能接宾语,常见动词 arrive, fall, happen, lean, remain, rise, sleep

The books will arrive tomorrow. …………… 书本明天会到的。
The books will be arrived tomorrow. …………… (×)
 
Leaves fall when the wind blows. …………… 风吹落叶下。
Leaves are fallen when wind blow. …………… (×)

2.   状态动词、表示“变化”的动词不能用于被动语态

感官动词:feel, look, sound, smell, taste, seem

心理、情感动词:believe,wish, consider, doubt, forget, remember, hate, love, mind, keep, remain, prove

属性、关系动词:belong, contain, exist, hold, own

表示“变化”的动词:become, turn, go, get, grow

I dont’ believe god, I dont’ believe ghost. …………… 我不相信神,也不相信鬼。
The color turns to yellow. …………… 颜色变成黄色了。

3.   当宾语是反身代词 ~self, 相互代词 each other, 同源宾语时

I teach myself English. …………… 我自学英语。
We help each other. …………… 我们互相帮忙。

4.  不宜使用被动语态的时候,有 主 + 谓 + 宾 结构,但一般采用主动形式说明,使用被动语态不适宜,甚至有点搞笑,这时主要看宾语和谓语要表达的是什么,是否强调主语

I am doing homework now……………. 我正在做作业。
The homework is being done by me. …………… ???
 
They play football outside the house. …………… 他们在房外踢足球。
Football is played by they outside the house. …………… ???
 
We are watching TV. …………… 我们正在看电视
TV is being watched by us. …………… ???

三、被动语态与系表结构的区别

be + done 可以是被动语态,也可以是系表结构。区别:被动语态表示以主语为承受着的动作;而系表结构则表示主语的特点或状态

The glass is broken by Tom. …………… 玻璃杯被汤姆打破了。
The glass on the desk is broken. …………… 桌上的玻璃杯是破的。

练习

翻译:
space   空间
A collection of points that have geometric properties in that they obey set rules , e.g. a Euclidean space that is governed by Euclidean geometry.

被动语态的运用


2018-12-29

SAT

A rectangular prism has dimensions h = 2 ft, w = 7 ft, and l = 4 ft. The prism is cut into two separate rectangular prisms by a plane parallel to one of the faces. What is the maximum increase in the surface area between the original prism and the two separate prisms?

A. 8 ft
B. 14 ft
C. 16 ft
D. 28 ft
E. 56 ft
Answer
E. 矩形棱柱的尺寸为h = 2英尺,w = 7英尺,l = 4英尺. 它被平行于其中一个面的平面切割成两个单独的矩形棱柱。 两个独立棱柱的表面积比原始棱柱的表面积增加的最大数值是多少?

一、主 + 谓 + 宾

1.  原来的宾语置首,变为主语;动词 do 改为 be + done;原来的主语置后变为宾格形式,并在前 + by 来体现被 “谁” 怎么样了。be 是助动词,有人称、数、时态的变化;done 是过去分词

主动句:主  +   谓  +   宾

被动句:原宾语  +  be  +  done  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Who Moved My Cheese is sold by them in that shop.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I will build a new house here in the future.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
A new house will be build by me here in the future.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

2.  “by + 原主语的宾格”构成的是介词短语,可以省略

Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  …………… 《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
A new house will be build in the future. …………… 将来会有一座新房子在这儿被建造。

二、主 + 谓 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

1.  主动句里有两个宾语,可以用里面的任何一个宾语做被动语态的主语,剩下的宾语留在过去分词之后,称为保留宾语;当选用直接宾语做主语时,保留宾语之前要加一个适当的介词,如:to,for,of

主动句:主  +  谓  +  间接宾语  +  直接宾语

被动句:原间接宾语  +  be  + done +  原直接宾语  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )
原直接宾语  +  be  + done +  介词  +  原间接宾语  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

He lent me  a lot of money. ….. 他借了很多钱给我。
主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语
I was lent  a lot of money by him. ….. 我被他借给了很多钱。
原间接宾语 谓语 原直接宾语 宾格(介词短语)
A lot of money was lent to me by him. ….. 很多钱由他借给我。
原直接宾语 谓语 to + 原间接宾语 宾格(介词短语)

2.  不是所有动词都通用于两种被动语态的变化,以下这些词可通用:ask, award, buy, give, leave, lend, offer, pay, teach, tell, show

I asked dad an odd question. …………… 我向爸爸问了一个奇怪的问题。
Dad was asked an odd question by me. …………… 爸爸被我问了一个奇怪的问题。
An odd question was asked to dad by me. …………… 一个奇怪的问题我向爸爸问了。

3.  通常用直接宾语作被动语态主语的动词:bring, do, make, pass, sell, send, sing, sew, write

Mum brings me a cake. …………… 妈妈给我带来一个蛋糕。
A cate is brought to me by mum. …………… 一个蛋糕由妈妈给我带来。
 
I wrote him a letter . …………… 我给他写了一封信。
A letter was written to him by me. …………… 一封信由我给他写了。

4.  通常用间接宾语作被动语态主语的动词:answer, deny, envy, refuse, save, spare

I refused him the invitation . …………… 我拒绝邀请他。
He was refused the invitation by me. …………… 他被我拒绝邀请。

三、主 + 谓 +  宾语 + 宾语补足语

宾语补足语放在宾语后面,使语义更明确和完整,它可以是名词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、分词。改为被动语态时,它的位置不变,但语法功能变了:成为主语补足语

主动句:主  +   谓  +   宾  + 宾语补足语

被动句:原宾语  +  be  +  done  +  宾语补足语  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

They call the little cat Mimi. ……… 他们把那只小猫叫做咪咪。
主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语
The little cat is called Mimi by them. ……… 那只小猫被他们叫做咪咪。
原宾语 谓语 宾语补足语

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I saw the kite up and down. ….. 我看见那风筝上下飘动。
主语 谓语 宾语 副词作宾语补足语
The kite was seen up and down by me. ….. 那风筝被我看见上下飘动。
原宾语 谓语 宾语补足语

四、主  +  情态动词  +  do  +   宾

情态动词是一类像 can、may、must、will、dare 的动词,它和动词原形一起构成谓语。改为被动语态时,谓语是:情态动词  +  be  + done

主动句:主  +  情态动词  +  do  +   宾

被动句:原宾语  +  情态动词  +  be  +  done  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

Grandma can use computer now. ………. 奶奶现在会使用电脑了。
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Computer can be used by garndma now. ………. 电脑现在能够被奶奶使用了。
原宾语 谓语

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Lily must clean her room. …………… 莉莉必须打扫房间。
主语 谓语 宾语
Lily’s room must be clean by her. …………… 莉莉的房间必须被打扫。
原宾语 谓语

五、短语动词构成的被动语态

不及物动词后不接宾语,所以不及物动词没有被动语态。但在不及物动词后接上介词,其作用相当于及物动词,可以接宾语,从而也有被动语态。此时只需把谓语动词变成:be + done

主动句:主  +  不及物动词  +  介词  +   宾

被动句:原宾语  +  be  + done   +  介词  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

She looks after the baby. ……… 她照顾那个宝宝。
主语 谓语 宾语
The baby was looked after by her. ……… 那个宝宝由她照顾。
原宾语 谓语

主动语态变被动语态


2018-12-28

SAT

A sphere is created with half the radius of the original sphere. What is the radius of the volume of the original sphere to the volume of the new sphere?

A. 1:8
B. 8:1
C. 2:1
D. 1:2
E. 4:1
Answer
B. 创建一个半径为原始球体半径的一半的球体。 原始球体的体积半径与新球体的体积比是多少?球的体积比是半径比的立方。

一、语态

语态是动词的一种形式,用来说明主语和谓语的关系。主动语态表示主语是谓语的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语的承受者。

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop. …. 主动 —— 他们在那个商店销售《谁动了我的奶酪》
Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  …….. 被动 —— 《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

二、被动语态的构成 —— be + done过去分词

被动语态体现于谓语动词的组成:be + done,be 是助动词,有人称、数、时态的变化;done 是过去分词。

1.  细分原句主动语态时的 主 + 谓 + 宾 结构,改为被动语态时:原来的宾语置首,变为主语;动词 do 改为 be + done;原来的主语置后变为宾格形式,并在前 + by 来体现被 “谁” 怎么样了,此时“by + 原主语的宾格”构成介词短语。状语不变

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Who Moved My Cheese is sold by them in that shop.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

2.  时态必须和原来主动时的一致

He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

三、被动语态的时态

一般 进行 完成
现在 am / is / are + done am / is / are + being done have / has + been done
过去 was / were + done was / were + being done had + been done
将来 will / shall be  + done will / shall have + been done
过去将来 would / should be  + done would / should have + been done

1.  一般现在时

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop. ………他们在那个商店销售《谁动了我的奶酪》
Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.

2.  一般过去时

Tom bought a computer yesterday. …………… 汤姆昨天买了一部电脑。
A computer was bought by Tom yesterday.

3.  一般将来时

I will build a new house here in the future. …………… 将来我要在这儿建一座新的房子。
A new house will be build here in the future.

4.  一般过去将来时

I would draw pictures when I was a child . …………… 我小时候总喜欢画画。
Pictures would be drawn by me when I was a child

5.  现在进行时

He is repairing the bike.
The bike is being repaired by him……………. 他正在修理自行车。

6.  过去进行时

I was reading the book then. …………… 那时我正在读书。
The book was being read by me then.

7.  现在完成时

The workers has built a wonderful museum. …………… 工人们建成了一座无与伦比的博物馆。
A wonderful museum has been built by the workers.

8.  过去完成时

They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
All the food had been finished before I arrived!

9.  将来完成时

I will have finished this article tomorrow. …………… 明天我将完成这篇文章。
This article will have been finished by me tomorrow.

练习

翻译:
variable   变量

  • A quantity capable of assuming any of a set of values.
  • A symbol, especially ‘x’, ‘y’, or ‘z’, that is used usually in connection with quantifiers to represent individuals in a universe of discourse.
  • Computing a named unit of storage that can be changed to any of a set of specified values during execution of a program. (Computer Science)

被动语态 be done


2018-12-28

SAT

The conical tank bellow is filled with liquid. How much liquid has poured from the tip of the cone if the water level is 9 feet from the tip?

A. 67π ft3
B. 57π ft3
C. 47π ft3
D. 37π ft3
E. 27π ft3
Answer
D. 下图的锥形罐充满液体. 如果水位距离尖端9英尺, 从锥体尖端倒出了多少液体?

一、基本句型

1.  现在完成时是一种既涉及过去有联系现在的时态。主要说明“做完了 … ”。谓语动词的形式是:have / has + done,have / has 是助动词,在句中没有实际意思;done 是过去分词,与have / has 一起构成谓语,体现的是时态。

单数 复数
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
我们 你们 他 / 她 / 它 们
I you he she it we you they
have done have done has done have done

2.  肯定句: 主语 + have / has + done + … …

否定句:have / has 后 + not ,简写 haven’t,hasn’t

I have just finished my homework. …………… 我刚刚做完作业了。
He has gone to NewYork. …………… 他去纽约了。
 
My sister hasn’t tasted chocolate. …………… 我妹妹没有尝过巧克力。
They haven’t read the Times. …………… 他们还没读过《Times》。

3.  一般疑问句:Have  /  Has + 主语 + done + … … ?

特殊疑问句:疑问词 + have / has + 主语 + done + … … ?  疑问词不能用 When

Have you wash your hands. …………… 你洗手了吗?
Yes, I have. …………… 是的,我洗了。
No, I haven’t. …………… 不,我还没洗。
 
Has Jack found his girl-friend? …………… 杰克找到女朋友了吗?
Yes, he has. …………… 是的,他找到了。
No, he hasn’t. …………… 不,还没找到。
 
What have you put in my bag? …………… 你在我包包里放了什么?
Where has Mike been to China? …………… 麦克到过中国的什么地方?
How many times has Mike been to China? …………… 麦克去了几次中国?

二、基本用法

1.  表示过去的动作刚刚结束或已经完成,常与 just, already,ever, recently 连用,否定时用 never , yet

I have just finished my homework. …………… 我刚刚做完作业了。
Lucy has already drawn a little cat. …………… 露西已经画完一只小猫了。
Mr.King hasn’t had breakfast yet. …………… 金先生还没吃早餐。

2.  过去发生的动作对现在的影响,常与表示过去的不确定的时间状语 before, once, twice, ~ times,often, ever,或包括现在时间在内的时间状语 now, this morning 连用,但不能与特定的过去时间状语 in 1900 year、 last year、ago 连用

He has gone to NewYork. …………… 他去纽约了。(现在不在说话的地方了)
What have you put in my bag? …………… 你在我包包里放了什么?
Lily has been to Japan twice. …………… 莉莉去过日本两次。

3.  一个动作从过去某时开始,延续到现在,并可能延续下去,常与 for, since, so far, during, these days, up to now, till / until now 连用

He has worked here for over 20 years. …………… 他在这儿工作已经有20多年了。
Grace has learned dancing since she was four. …………… 格蕾丝从4岁起就学跳舞了。
They have lived in the Happy Hotel these days. ………. 这几天他们住在快乐旅店里。
Lily has learned to play violin since she was five. …………… 莉莉五岁时就学习拉小提琴了。

4.  It is the best(worst,最高级)+ 名词 … 从句

It is the best film I have ever seen. …………… 它是我开过的最好的电影。

5.  It is the first(last,序数词) time that … 从句

It is the first time that I have heard her song. …………… 这是我第一次听到她的歌曲。

6.  have / has been to:到过 … 地方,能用次数 ~ times

have / has gone to:去 … 地方,已经不在说话人所在地点了,不能用次数 ~ times

He has been to NewYork four times. …………… 他到过纽约4次了。
He has gone to NewYork. …………… 他去纽约了。(现在不在说话的地方了)
He has gone to NewYork four times. …………… (×)

现在完成时 have / has + done


2018-12-28

SAT

A store is having a sale on all items for 20% off the original price. If x represents the original price of the item, what expression represents the sale price of the item?

Answer
0.8x. 商店正对所有销售商品打折20%. 如果x代表商品的原始价格, 那么商品的销售价格的表达式是什么?

一、基本句型

1.  现在进行时表示“正在做 … ”,谓语动词的形式是:be + doing。因为是现在时,be 可以是 am,is,are,在语法结构中,它们的作用是助动词;而 doing 是现在分词,它们共同构成谓语。

单数 复数
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
我们 你们 他 / 她 / 它 们
I you he she it we you they
am doing are doing is doing are doing

2.  肯定句: 主语 + am  /  are  /  is + doing + … … ,否定句在 am  /  are  /  is 后 + not

I am playing piano.   …………… 我在弹钢琴。
You are reading a book. …………… 你在读书。
He isn’t running, he is swimming.   …………… 他不是在跑步,而是在游泳。

3.  一般疑问句:Am  /  Are  /  Is + 主语 + doing + … … ?

特殊疑问句:疑问词 + am  /  are  /  is + 主语 + doing + … … ?

Are you learning English?   …………… 你正在学英语吗?
Yes, I am.   …………… 是的,我是。
No, I am not.   …………… 不,我不是。
 
Is Jack playing basketball?   …………… 杰克在打篮球吗?
Yes, he is. …………… 是的,他是。
No, he isn’t.   …………… 不,他不是。
 
What are you doing now?   …………… 你在做什么?
When is Mary leaving?   …………… 玛丽什么时候出发?
Where are they going?   …………… 他们要到哪里去?

二、基本用法

1.  现在进行的动作,不是瞬间完成,而是持续一段时间,常与 now,at this moment 连用

I am doing homework now.   …………… 我正在做作业。
They are playing football in the ground. …………… 他们在操场上踢足球。

2.  现阶段正在进行的动作,常与 at present,this days 连用

He is taking physics this semester.   …………… 他在这个学期参加锻炼。
The people all over the world are fighting against pollution.   ……… 全世界的人都在和污染作斗争。

3.  表示最近的计划或安排好的动作,一般用于下列动词:arrive, go, come, leave,start, return, work, sleep, stay, do, have, wear 等表示移动方向的动词

What are you going to do tomorrow?   …………… 你明天打算做什么呢?
My sister is staying with us for a few days next month.  ………….. 妹妹在下个月和我们一起住几天。

4.  描写一种状态,或重复的动作,具有某种感情色彩(喜欢、满意、厌倦),常与 always, forever, continually, constantly 连用

I am missing you dreadfully.   …………… 我极其思念你。
It is always raining here.   …………… 这儿总是在下雨。

现在进行时 am / are / is + doing


2018-12-28

SAT Ⅱ

A four-digit pin number is needed to access a bank account. How many different four-digit pin numbers are possible if no number can be used twice, and the first and third digits must be odd, and the second and fourth digits must be even?

Answer
400. 访问银行帐户需要四位数的密码. 如果没有数字可以重复使用, 而且第一个和第三个数字必须是奇数, 第二个和第四个数字必须是偶数, 可以有多少个不同的四位数密码?

一、状语和条件、让步状语从句的对比

1.  简单句中的状语

He is ready to help you. …………… 他已经准备帮你了。
Given more time, we could done the work better. ……. 如果提供更多的时间,我们会做得更好。

2.  条件、让步状语从句

I’ll go out tomorrow unless
it rains.
我明天外出,除非下雨。 (条件)
I’ll go out tomorrow even if
it rains.
即使明天下雨,我还是外出。 (让步)
(主语 + 谓语+ 状语) 引导词 (主语 + 谓语)

it rains 已是“主谓”结构的语句,通过引导词作引导成为状语从句来修饰 “I’ll go out tomorrow”,引导词不同,整个句子表达的意思也就不一样

二、条件状语从句

条件、让步状语从句由从属连词 if、 unless ( = if not ) 、 as long as ( = so long as ) 引导

if:如果

unless ( = if not ) :除非,如果不

as long as ( = so long as ) :只要

He will come if you invite him. …………… 如果你请他,他会来的。
If I were you, I would go to see Mr.Lee at once. …………… 如果我是你,我会马上去找李先生的。
 
I’ll go out tomorrow unless it rains.  =  I’ll go out tomorrow if it dose not rain.
我明天外出,除非下雨。(如果明天不下雨,我会外出。)
 
I wouldn’t give up unless he give up first.  =  I wouldn’t give up if he doesn’t give up first.
我不会放弃,除非他先放弃了。
 
As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. …………… 只要你小心驾车,你会很安全的。
There is hope so long as he is with us. . …………… 只要他在就有希望。

三、让步状语从句

让步状语从句可由 though ( = although) 、 as、 even if ( = even though ) 、 whether … or not 、 no matter ( what、 who、 when、 which、 where、 how )

1.  though = although:虽然。 一般 although 只用在句首,而 though 可用在句中任何位置,他们都不能够与 but 连用

Althought ( Though ) he is young, he knows much. …………… 虽然他年轻,但他懂得很多。
He knows much though he is young.
He is young, but he knows much.
Althought ( Though )he is young, but he knows much. …………… (×)

2.  as:尽管,用倒装

even if ( = even though ) : 尽管,即使

whether … or ( not ):不管怎样,无论如何;
不论 … 还是 …

Cold as it was, we went on working in the field. …………… 尽管天气冷,我们继续在田里干活。
Tired as he was, he sat up late. …………… 他虽然疲倦,可仍然熬夜到很晚才睡。
 
I’ll go out tomorrow even if it rains. …………… 即使明天下雨,我还是外出。
Even though he tried, he still lagged behind other runners.
尽管他努力了,仍落在其他赛跑者之后。

I’ll go out tomorrow whether or no it rains. …………… 无论是否下雨,我明天将会外出。
Whether they go or stay, it makes no odds. …………… 他们是去是留都没多大关系。

3.  no matter ( what、 who、 when、 which、 where、 how ) :不论 ( 什么、谁、什么时候、哪一个、什么地方、如何) ,可以由 ~ever 构成的合成词替代

No matter what happens, I’ll always love you.  =  Whatever happens, I’ll always love you.
无论发生什么,我将永远爱你。
 
No matter who break the law, he will be punished.  =  Whoever break the law, he will be punished.
不论谁犯法,都要受到处罚。
 
No matter when you come, you’ll be welcome.  =  Whenever you come, you’ll be welcome.
无论你什么时候来,都欢迎。
 
No matter which they choose, we must accept their decision.
Whichever they choose, we must accept their decision.
不论他们选择哪一个,我们必须接受他们的选择。
 
No matter where she goes, there are crowds of people waiting to see her.
Wherever she goes, there are crowds of people waiting to see her.
不管她去到那里,总会有一群人在等她。
 
No matter how hungry I am, I never seem to be able to finish off a whole pizza.
However hungry I am, I never seem to be able to finish off a whole pizza.
无论我多么的饥饿,我似乎从来没有能够完成一整个比萨。

练习

翻译:
cylinder     圆柱,柱面
A right circular cylinder having a finite height with circular ends perpendicular to the axis as shown in the figure. If the ends are open, it is called an open cylinder. If the ends are closed by flat surfaces it is called a solid cylinder.

 
ellipse   椭圆
A closed, symmetric curve shaped like an oval, which can be formed by intersecting a cone with a plane that is not parallel or perpendicular to the cone’s base. The sum of the distances of any point on an ellipse from two fixed points (called the foci) remains constant no matter where the point is on the curve.

条件、让步状语从句 if


2018-12-28

SAT

Five people, all different ages, are arranged in a row so that the oldest person in the middle and the two youngest people are in the ends. How many different arrangements of this type exist?

A. 2
B. 4
C. 8
D. 16
E. 32
Answer
B. 不同年龄的五个人排成一排, 最老的人在中间和两个最年轻的人在两端. 这种类型的不同排法有多少种?

一、状语和原因、结果、目的状语从句的对比

在句子中作状语的从句叫状语从句,可以表示原因,结果,目的等

1.  简单句中的状语

Being spring, the flowers are in full bloom. …………… 春天,花儿争相开放。(原因)
I try my best but only to fail. …………… 我尽力了可只是失败。(结果)
She saved enought money to travel the world. ……….. 她存了足够的钱去周游世界。(目的)

2.  原因、结果、目的状语从句

I buy books on the internet because online shopping can save money. (原因)
I buy books on the internet so that I have saved money. (结果)
I buy books on the internet in order that I can save money. (目的)
(主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 状语) 引导词 (主语 + 谓语 + 宾语)

online shopping can save money 和 I have saved money 以及 I can save money 都是主谓宾结构的语句,通过引导词作引导成为状语从句

二、原因状语从句

原因状语从句可由从属连词 because、as、for 和 since 引导,但略有差别:

because:“因为”,语气最强烈,它表达的是直接原因,由于它才导致了 … 结果

as:“因为,由于”,语气较弱,比较口语化

for:推断的理由,不能放在句首

since:“既然”,表示对方已经知道的事实和理由

I didn’t go to school yesterday because I was ill. …………… 我昨天没上课是因为我病了。
Because online shopping can save money I buy books on the internet.
Because online shopping can save money so I buy books on the internet. …………… (×)
因为网上购物能省钱,所有我在因特网上买书。  (不能与 so 连用)
 
As you request it, I will come. …………… 由于你的要求,我会来的。
 
We must start early, for it will take two hours to drive to the airport.
我们得早点动身,因为开车去机场得花两个小时。
 
Since it is so hot, let’s go swimming. …………… 既然天气这么热,我们去游泳吧。

三、目的、结果状语从句

目的状语从句:that、 so that、 in order that

结果状语从句:that、 so that、 so … that、 such … that

1.  它们的连接词比较接近,so that 可用于两者,关键看从句的谓语动词是否含有can、 could、 may、 might、 will、 would 等词,目的状语从句会有,而结果状语从句则没有

My uncle have eaten too much yesterday so that he may want to eat nothing today.
我舅舅昨天吃得太多了,今天他可能什么都不想吃。 (目的)
 
My uncle have eaten too much yesterday so that he want to eat nothing today.
我舅舅昨天吃得太多了,导致他今天什么都不想吃。 (结果)

2.  in order that 与 so that 的用法一样,从句的谓语动词是否常有can、 could、 may、 might、 will、 would 等词

I buy books on the internet in order that I can save money.
我在网上买书为了我能省钱。

3.  so … that 和 such … that 的比较:so 是副词,后接形容词 、副词;而 such 为形容词,后接名词

He runs so fast that nobody can catch up with him.
他跑得太快了,以至于无人能赶上他。(虽然此句也有can ,但用的是so … that而不是so that)
 
These are such nice sweet cakes that I want to eat all.
这些蛋糕太甜美了,我想把它们都吃光。

4.   so + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + that

=  such + a / an + 形容词 + 单数可数名词 + that

She is so beautiful a girl that we all love her. ………… 她是一个如此美丽的女孩,大家都爱她。
She is such a beautiful girl that we all love her.

原因,结果,目的状语从句


2018-12-28

SAT

It takes a copy machine 6 minutes to complete a certain copy job. How many minutes until the copy machine is finished with the job after 2/3 of the job has been completed?

A. 2 minutes
B. 2.5 minutes
C. 3 minutes
D. 3.5 minutes
E. 4 minutes
Answer
A. 复印机需要6分钟才能完成某个复印作业. 完成作业的2/3之后, 复印机完成作业还需要多少分钟?

一、状语和时间状语从句的对比

在句子中作状语的从句叫状语从句,时间状语从句是动作与时间先后顺序有关的状语从句

1.  简单句中的状语

He runs fast. …………… 他跑得快。
The book is very interesting. …………… 这本书很有趣。

2.  时间状语从句

He ran as soon as   he saw the headmaster.
主语 谓语 引导词 (主语 + 谓语 + 宾语)
They had finished all the food before    I arrived!
主语 谓语 宾语 引导词 (主语 + 谓语)

he saw the headmaster 和 I arrived 是主谓结构完整的语句,通过 as soon as 和 before 来引导,并体现时间先后顺序。

二、引导连词

引导时间状语从句的连词有when、 while、 as、 since、 before、 after、 as soon as、 till、 until

1.  when、 while、 as 都可以表示“当 … 时” ,有时可互换。 也有差别:while 用于延续性动作的动词,表示的时间较长,有时会有对比的意思;as 用于时间较短的情景,或者表示“一边 … 一边”

They were listening the music when I came in.   …………… 当我进来时她们正在听音乐。
When I got to the cinema, the film had begun. …………… 当我到电影院时,电影已经开了。
 
I’ll take care of your children while you are away. …………… 你不在时我会照顾你的孩子的。
The boys were playing football, while the girls were reading in classroom.
男孩们在踢足球而女孩们在教室读书。
 
As she left the room she remembered that book. …………… 她离开房间时想起了那本书。
As we walked, we talked. …………… 我们边走边谈。

2.  since:自 … 以来,表示自过去的某一个时间到目前为止的一段持续时间,主句一般用现在完成时,从句用一般过去时,动词要用延续动词;还用于 It is … since … 从句

Lily has learned to play violin since she was five. …………… 莉莉五岁时就学习拉小提琴了。
It is many years since Magellan start first global navigation.
自从麦哲伦开始首次环球航行以来,已有很多年了。

3.  before:在 … 之前, after:在 … 之后

They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
What are you going to do after you finished college? …………… 大学毕业后你打算做什么?

4.  till、until:直到 … ,可以互换

The baby cried and cried till his mother come back. …………… 这个宝宝哭啊哭直到妈妈回来。
I stood there until the plane had disappeared in the sky. 我站在那儿知道飞机消失于天空中。

5.  as soon as

The boy went out as soon as he finished his homework. ………… 那男孩一做完作业就外出了。
He ran as soon as he saw the headmaster. …………… 一见到校长他就跑了。

时间状语从句