语法 Grammar | 玄数

2018-12-29

一、使用被动语态的场合

1.  不知道或不必要说明动作的执行者

Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  ……………《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
A new house will be build here in the future. …………… 将来会有一座新房子在这儿被建造。

2.  不宜提出动作的执行者

About the project, much has been said but little has been done.
对于这个项目,说的多,做的少。

3.   强调动作的承受者

A wonderful museum has been built in Paris. ……….. 一座无与伦比的博物馆在巴黎建成了。
The first prize was won by Mary. …………… 一等奖由玛丽获得。

4.  It + be done + that 从句,it 作形式主语,意思为据说、据报导

It is reported that the weather tomorrow is very very bad. ………….. 据报导明天的天气相当差。
It is said that the cost of the dress would get higher. …………… 据说服装的价格会升高。

5.   be done + 不定式 to do

He was said to have disclosed the secret. …………… 据说他已经泄漏秘密了。
The bad weather is expected to stop right now. …………… 希望恶劣的天气就将打住吧。

6.   There + be done

There are supposed to be wild animals in the hills. …………… 有人猜想山上会有野生动物。

二、不使用被动语态的时候

1.   不及物动词不能用于被动语态,因为不及物,也就不能接宾语,常见动词 arrive, fall, happen, lean, remain, rise, sleep

The books will arrive tomorrow. …………… 书本明天会到的。
The books will be arrived tomorrow. …………… (×)
 
Leaves fall when the wind blows. …………… 风吹落叶下。
Leaves are fallen when wind blow. …………… (×)

2.   状态动词、表示“变化”的动词不能用于被动语态

感官动词:feel, look, sound, smell, taste, seem

心理、情感动词:believe,wish, consider, doubt, forget, remember, hate, love, mind, keep, remain, prove

属性、关系动词:belong, contain, exist, hold, own

表示“变化”的动词:become, turn, go, get, grow

I dont’ believe god, I dont’ believe ghost. …………… 我不相信神,也不相信鬼。
The color turns to yellow. …………… 颜色变成黄色了。

3.   当宾语是反身代词 ~self, 相互代词 each other, 同源宾语时

I teach myself English. …………… 我自学英语。
We help each other. …………… 我们互相帮忙。

4.  不宜使用被动语态的时候,有 主 + 谓 + 宾 结构,但一般采用主动形式说明,使用被动语态不适宜,甚至有点搞笑,这时主要看宾语和谓语要表达的是什么,是否强调主语

I am doing homework now……………. 我正在做作业。
The homework is being done by me. …………… ???
 
They play football outside the house. …………… 他们在房外踢足球。
Football is played by they outside the house. …………… ???
 
We are watching TV. …………… 我们正在看电视
TV is being watched by us. …………… ???

三、被动语态与系表结构的区别

be + done 可以是被动语态,也可以是系表结构。区别:被动语态表示以主语为承受着的动作;而系表结构则表示主语的特点或状态

The glass is broken by Tom. …………… 玻璃杯被汤姆打破了。
The glass on the desk is broken. …………… 桌上的玻璃杯是破的。

练习. How sweet the music ________ !

A. sounds to be B. is sounded
C. is sounded to be D. sounds
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-29

一、主 + 谓 + 宾

1.  原来的宾语置首,变为主语;动词 do 改为 be + done;原来的主语置后变为宾格形式,并在前 + by 来体现被 “谁” 怎么样了。be 是助动词,有人称、数、时态的变化;done 是过去分词

主动句:主  +   谓  +   宾

被动句:原宾语  +  be  +  done  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Who Moved My Cheese is sold by them in that shop.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I will build a new house here in the future.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
A new house will be build by me here in the future.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

2.  “by + 原主语的宾格”构成的是介词短语,可以省略

Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  …………… 《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
A new house will be build in the future. …………… 将来会有一座新房子在这儿被建造。

二、主 + 谓 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

1.  主动句里有两个宾语,可以用里面的任何一个宾语做被动语态的主语,剩下的宾语留在过去分词之后,称为保留宾语;当选用直接宾语做主语时,保留宾语之前要加一个适当的介词,如:to,for,of

主动句:主  +  谓  +  间接宾语  +  直接宾语

被动句:原间接宾语  +  be  + done +  原直接宾语  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )
原直接宾语  +  be  + done +  介词  +  原间接宾语  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

He lent me  a lot of money. ….. 他借了很多钱给我。
主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语
I was lent  a lot of money by him. ….. 我被他借给了很多钱。
原间接宾语 谓语 原直接宾语 宾格(介词短语)
A lot of money was lent to me by him. ….. 很多钱由他借给我。
原直接宾语 谓语 to + 原间接宾语 宾格(介词短语)

2.  不是所有动词都通用于两种被动语态的变化,以下这些词可通用:ask, award, buy, give, leave, lend, offer, pay, teach, tell, show

I asked dad an odd question. …………… 我向爸爸问了一个奇怪的问题。
Dad was asked an odd question by me. …………… 爸爸被我问了一个奇怪的问题。
An odd question was asked to dad by me. …………… 一个奇怪的问题我向爸爸问了。

3.  通常用直接宾语作被动语态主语的动词:bring, do, make, pass, sell, send, sing, sew, write

Mum brings me a cake. …………… 妈妈给我带来一个蛋糕。
A cate is brought to me by mum. …………… 一个蛋糕由妈妈给我带来。
 
I wrote him a letter . …………… 我给他写了一封信。
A letter was written to him by me. …………… 一封信由我给他写了。

4.  通常用间接宾语作被动语态主语的动词:answer, deny, envy, refuse, save, spare

I refused him the invitation . …………… 我拒绝邀请他。
He was refused the invitation by me. …………… 他被我拒绝邀请。

三、主 + 谓 +  宾语 + 宾语补足语

宾语补足语放在宾语后面,使语义更明确和完整,它可以是名词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、分词。改为被动语态时,它的位置不变,但语法功能变了:成为主语补足语

主动句:主  +   谓  +   宾  + 宾语补足语

被动句:原宾语  +  be  +  done  +  宾语补足语  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

They call the little cat Mimi. ……… 他们把那只小猫叫做咪咪。
主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语
The little cat is called Mimi by them. ……… 那只小猫被他们叫做咪咪。
原宾语 谓语 宾语补足语

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

I saw the kite up and down. ….. 我看见那风筝上下飘动。
主语 谓语 宾语 副词作宾语补足语
The kite was seen up and down by me. ….. 那风筝被我看见上下飘动。
原宾语 谓语 宾语补足语

四、主  +  情态动词  +  do  +   宾

情态动词是一类像 can、may、must、will、dare 的动词,它和动词原形一起构成谓语。改为被动语态时,谓语是:情态动词  +  be  + done

主动句:主  +  情态动词  +  do  +   宾

被动句:原宾语  +  情态动词  +  be  +  done  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

Grandma can use computer now. ………. 奶奶现在会使用电脑了。
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Computer can be used by garndma now. ………. 电脑现在能够被奶奶使用了。
原宾语 谓语

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Lily must clean her room. …………… 莉莉必须打扫房间。
主语 谓语 宾语
Lily’s room must be clean by her. …………… 莉莉的房间必须被打扫。
原宾语 谓语

五、短语动词构成的被动语态

不及物动词后不接宾语,所以不及物动词没有被动语态。但在不及物动词后接上介词,其作用相当于及物动词,可以接宾语,从而也有被动语态。此时只需把谓语动词变成:be + done

主动句:主  +  不及物动词  +  介词  +   宾

被动句:原宾语  +  be  + done   +  介词  +  ( by  +  原主语的宾格 )

She looks after the baby. ……… 她照顾那个宝宝。
主语 谓语 宾语
The baby was looked after by her. ……… 那个宝宝由她照顾。
原宾语 谓语

练习. A: Would you like to go to the movie with me?

B: Sorry, I ________ to go out tonight.

A. won’t be allowed B. am allowed
C. don’t allow D. will allow
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-28

一、语态

语态是动词的一种形式,用来说明主语和谓语的关系。主动语态表示主语是谓语的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语的承受者。

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop. …. 主动 —— 他们在那个商店销售《谁动了我的奶酪》
Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  …….. 被动 —— 《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

二、被动语态的构成 —— be + done过去分词

被动语态体现于谓语动词的组成:be + done,be 是助动词,有人称、数、时态的变化;done 是过去分词。

1.  细分原句主动语态时的 主 + 谓 + 宾 结构,改为被动语态时:原来的宾语置首,变为主语;动词 do 改为 be + done;原来的主语置后变为宾格形式,并在前 + by 来体现被 “谁” 怎么样了,此时“by + 原主语的宾格”构成介词短语。状语不变

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Who Moved My Cheese is sold by them in that shop.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

2.  时态必须和原来主动时的一致

He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

三、被动语态的时态

一般 进行 完成
现在 am / is / are + done am / is / are + being done have / has + been done
过去 was / were + done was / were + being done had + been done
将来 will / shall be  + done will / shall have + been done
过去将来 would / should be  + done would / should have + been done

1.  一般现在时

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop. ………他们在那个商店销售《谁动了我的奶酪》
Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.

2.  一般过去时

Tom bought a computer yesterday. …………… 汤姆昨天买了一部电脑。
A computer was bought by Tom yesterday.

3.  一般将来时

I will build a new house here in the future. …………… 将来我要在这儿建一座新的房子。
A new house will be build here in the future.

4.  一般过去将来时

I would draw pictures when I was a child . …………… 我小时候总喜欢画画。
Pictures would be drawn by me when I was a child

5.  现在进行时

He is repairing the bike.
The bike is being repaired by him……………. 他正在修理自行车。

6.  过去进行时

I was reading the book then. …………… 那时我正在读书。
The book was being read by me then.

7.  现在完成时

The workers has built a wonderful museum. …………… 工人们建成了一座无与伦比的博物馆。
A wonderful museum has been built by the workers.

8.  过去完成时

They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
All the food had been finished before I arrived!

9.  将来完成时

I will have finished this article tomorrow. …………… 明天我将完成这篇文章。
This article will have been finished by me tomorrow.

练习. Mike, you ________ on the phone.

A. is wanted B. want C. are wanted D. are wanting
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-28

一、基本句型

过去将来时的构成和一般现在时一样,只需把 have 变为过去式即可:had + done

My dad told me he had already bought the cake for me. ……… 爸爸告诉我已经给我买蛋糕了。
They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
 
Had they finished all the food before I arrived? ………….. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西吗?
Yes, they had. …………… 是的,他们吃完了。
No, they hadn’t. …………… 不,他们没吃完。
 
What had Kitty drawn on the wall when the police came in? …. 警察来前凯特在墙上画了什么?
How long had you learned English by the time you graduated from school?
毕业前你学了多久英语啊?

二、基本用法

1.  表示过去的过去:一个动作在过去的某个具体时间之前已经发生、完成。常与 just, already,ever, yet, by then, by the time, by … 连用

They had finished all the house work by 9 o’clock.  …………. 在9点之前他们做完所有家务了。
By the end of 2010 the world population had gone up to nearly 7 billion.  
到2010年底,世界人口上升到将近70亿。

2.  两个动作都在过去发生,一个动作在过去某个动作之前已经发生,用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时。常与before, after, when,till / until, as soon as 连用

They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
The baby had slept when her mother came in. …………… 在妈妈进来时宝宝已经睡着了。

3.  一个动作从过去某时开始,并延续到过去的某个时间,常与 for, since连用

XuBeihong had drawn horses for a long time before he went to France.  
徐悲鸿在去法国之前已经画马有相当一段时间了。

4.  简介引语或宾语从句

My dad told me he had already bought the cake for me. ……… 爸爸告诉我已经给我买蛋糕了。
I didn’t understand what he had done it for. …………… 过去我不理解他为何要这么做。

5.  与 hadly ,  scarcely ,  barely ,  no sooner … than 连用时,表示 “刚刚 … 就,不等 … 就”

She had hardly gone to bed when the bill rang. …………… 他刚刚一上床睡觉电话就响了。

6.  表示未能实现的愿望:hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等动词,用过去完成时表示想做而未做的事,意为“原本 … 而未能 …”

We had hope that you would come, but you didn’t. ……….. 我们原以为你会来,但却没有来。

练习. Grandma promised whe ________ me an mooncake.

A. will buy B. would buy C. has bought D. had bought
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-28

一、基本句型

1.  现在完成时是一种既涉及过去有联系现在的时态。主要说明“做完了 … ”。谓语动词的形式是:have / has + done,have / has 是助动词,在句中没有实际意思;done 是过去分词,与have / has 一起构成谓语,体现的是时态。

单数 复数
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
我们 你们 他 / 她 / 它 们
I you he she it we you they
have done have done has done have done

2.  肯定句: 主语 + have / has + done + … …

否定句:have / has 后 + not ,简写 haven’t,hasn’t

I have just finished my homework. …………… 我刚刚做完作业了。
He has gone to NewYork. …………… 他去纽约了。
 
My sister hasn’t tasted chocolate. …………… 我妹妹没有尝过巧克力。
They haven’t read the Times. …………… 他们还没读过《Times》。

3.  一般疑问句:Have  /  Has + 主语 + done + … … ?

特殊疑问句:疑问词 + have / has + 主语 + done + … … ?  疑问词不能用 When

Have you wash your hands. …………… 你洗手了吗?
Yes, I have. …………… 是的,我洗了。
No, I haven’t. …………… 不,我还没洗。
 
Has Jack found his girl-friend? …………… 杰克找到女朋友了吗?
Yes, he has. …………… 是的,他找到了。
No, he hasn’t. …………… 不,还没找到。
 
What have you put in my bag? …………… 你在我包包里放了什么?
Where has Mike been to China? …………… 麦克到过中国的什么地方?
How many times has Mike been to China? …………… 麦克去了几次中国?

二、基本用法

1.  表示过去的动作刚刚结束或已经完成,常与 just, already,ever, recently 连用,否定时用 never , yet

I have just finished my homework. …………… 我刚刚做完作业了。
Lucy has already drawn a little cat. …………… 露西已经画完一只小猫了。
Mr.King hasn’t had breakfast yet. …………… 金先生还没吃早餐。

2.  过去发生的动作对现在的影响,常与表示过去的不确定的时间状语 before, once, twice, ~ times,often, ever,或包括现在时间在内的时间状语 now, this morning 连用,但不能与特定的过去时间状语 in 1900 year、 last year、ago 连用

He has gone to NewYork. …………… 他去纽约了。(现在不在说话的地方了)
What have you put in my bag? …………… 你在我包包里放了什么?
Lily has been to Japan twice. …………… 莉莉去过日本两次。

3.  一个动作从过去某时开始,延续到现在,并可能延续下去,常与 for, since, so far, during, these days, up to now, till / until now 连用

He has worked here for over 20 years. …………… 他在这儿工作已经有20多年了。
Grace has learned dancing since she was four. …………… 格蕾丝从4岁起就学跳舞了。
They have lived in the Happy Hotel these days. ………. 这几天他们住在快乐旅店里。
Lily has learned to play violin since she was five. …………… 莉莉五岁时就学习拉小提琴了。

4.  It is the best(worst,最高级)+ 名词 … 从句

It is the best film I have ever seen. …………… 它是我开过的最好的电影。

5.  It is the first(last,序数词) time that … 从句

It is the first time that I have heard her song. …………… 这是我第一次听到她的歌曲。

6.  have / has been to:到过 … 地方,能用次数 ~ times

have / has gone to:去 … 地方,已经不在说话人所在地点了,不能用次数 ~ times

He has been to NewYork four times. …………… 他到过纽约4次了。
He has gone to NewYork. …………… 他去纽约了。(现在不在说话的地方了)
He has gone to NewYork four times. …………… (×)

练习. A: Where ________ the recorder? I can’t see it anywhere.

B: I ________ it right here. But now it’s gone!

A. did you put;have put B. have you put;put
C. had you put;was putting D. were you putting;have put
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-28

一、基本句型

过去将来时的构成和一般现在时一样,只需把 will 和 shall 变为过去式即可:would / should + do

I would draw pictures when I was a child. …………… 我小时候总喜欢画画。
I told him I was about to learn French. …………… 我告诉他我将要学习法语。
 
She said she wouldn’t eat meat any more. …………… 她说她不会再吃肉了。
Don’t worry, I would not tell her when she arrived.  ……… 别担心,她到达后我不会告诉她的。
 
Would Tom marry her? …………… 汤姆要和她结婚吗?
Which one would be the best? …………… 哪一个是最好的?

二、基本用法

1.  表示从过去的某一段时间看来是将要发生的动作或存在的状态

After three years she would be 18 years old. …………… 3年后她就18岁了。
I didn’t know why he would come. …………… 我不知道他为什么会来。
Whenever he had time, he would do some reading. …………… 他一有时间就看书。

2.  用在间接引语和宾语从句中

He asked me if I would go abroad. …………… 他问我是否会出国。
I told him I was about to learn French. …………… 我告诉他我将要学习法语。
She said she wouldn’t eat meat any more. …………… 她说她不会再吃肉了。

练习.Grandma promised whe ________ me a mooncake.

A. will buy B. would buy C. has bought D. had bought
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-28

一、基本句型

1.  一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或者存在的状态,谓语动词由shall / will + do 来表示,shall 和 will 是助动词。在书面语中,当主语是第一人称时,常用 shall,在口语中,所有的人称都可以用 will。它通常表示无主观意识、未事先考虑的情况

肯定句: 主语 + shall / will + do + … … ,否定句在 shall / will 后 + not

I shall / will have lunch with Mary today.   …………… 今天我将会与玛丽共进午餐。
He will visit Mr.Lee tomorrow.   …………… 他会在明天访问李先生。
It will be late if you don’t hurry up.
  …………… 如果你还不赶紧一点,就要迟到了。

2.  一般疑问句:Shall  /  Will + 主语 + do + … … ?

肯定回答:Yes, 主语 + will  / 主语 + shall(仅第一人称).

否定活动:No, 主语 + will + not. (简写 won’t) /  主语 + shall not (仅第一人称).

特殊疑问句:疑问词 +shall / will + 主语 + do + … … ?

Shall we have any class tomorrow? …………… 明天我们有课吗?
Yes, we shall / will.   …………… 是的,我没有。
No, we shall not / won’t.   …………… 不,我们没有。
 
What shall we do this afternoon?   …………… 今天下午我们做什么好呢?
When will he visit Mr.Lee?   …………… 他什么时候拜访李先生?
How many apples will they give us?   …………… 他们会给我们多少个苹果啊?

二、其他表示方式

1.  be going to + do:表示主观打算,计划安排好的动作

I am going to learn how to make the ice-cream. …………… 我打算学习做冰激凌。
The little boys are going to make a ghost. …………… 那些小子准备弄个鬼怪。
What are you going to do tomorrow?   …………… 你明天打算做什么呢?

2.  be to ( + do) :表示计划、安排、约定,或征求意见

Am I to take over his work?   …………… 我要接收他的工作吗?
We are about to swim this afternoon.  …………… 我们计划这个下午去游泳。

3.  be about to: 即将发生的动作

I am about to graduate. …………… 我即将大学毕业了。
Tom is about to go out when it started to rain. …………… 汤姆就要出去时却下起雨来。

4.  现在时表示将来时,一般用于下列动词:arrive,go,come,leave,start,begin,stop,open,close,return

I arrive in Paris tomorrow morning. …………… 我将会在明天上午到达巴黎。
He returns to Hongkong this afternoon.   …………… 他将在这个下午回香港。

三、基本用法

1.  表示将来的动作或状态,常与 tomorrow, next week ( month,year ) ,soon, in (the) future 连用

He will visit Mr.Lee tomorrow.   …………… 他会在明天访问李先生。
Mary will finish the homework soon. ……………  玛丽快完成作业了。

2.  将来的计划、安排、打算

I am going to learn how to make the ice-cream . …………… 我打算学习做冰激凌。
We are about to swim this afternoon.  …………… 我们计划这个下午去游泳。
I am about to graduate. …………… 我即将大学毕业了。

3.  在时间、条件、让步状语从句中表示将来的动作,主句用一般将来时 will do,从句可由 when、if、 until、unless、as soon as 引导,用一般现在时

I will tell her when she comes tomorrow.   …………… 明天她来了,我会告诉她的。
If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go out for a picnic.   ……….. 如果明天不下雨,我们外出野餐。

练习. There ________ a football game between Italy and Germany tomorrow morning.

A. has B. will have C. will be D. is going to be
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)

2018-12-28

一、基本句型

1.  过去进行时表示过去的某段时间“正在做 … ”,谓语动词的形式是:be + doing。因为是过去时,be 可以是 was 和 were,在语法结构中,它们的作用是助动词;而 doing 是现在分词,它们共同构成谓语。

单数 复数
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
我们 你们 他 / 她 / 它 们
I you he she it we you they
 was doing were doing was doing were doing

2.  肯定句: 主语 + was / were + doing + … … ,否定句在 was / were 后 + not

I was watering the flowers at 8 o’clock this mornig .   …………… 今天早上8点时我在浇花。
He was doing homework at this time yesterday. …………… 昨天这个时候他正在做作业。
They were listening the music when I came in.   …………… 当我进来时她们正在听音乐。

3.  一般疑问句:Was  /  Were + 主语 + doing + … … ?

特殊疑问句:疑问词 + was / were + 主语 + doing + … … ?

Were you reading a book then?   ……………那时你在读书吗?
Yes, I was.   …………… 是的,我是。
No, I wasn’t.   …………… 不,我不是。
 
Was Lucy playing the violin at 10 o’clock last night?   ……….. 昨晚10点钟露西在拉小提琴吗?
Yes, she was. …………… 是的,她是。
No, she wasn’t.   …………… 不,她不是。
 
What were you doing when I watch TV?   …………… 我看电视时你在做什么?
When was Mary cooking yesterday?   …………… 昨天玛丽什么时候做菜?

二、基本用法

1.  过去某个时刻、某一阶段正在进行的动作,常与 then,at this / that time,yesterday 等时间状语连用

He was doing homework at this time yesterday. …………… 昨天这个时候他正在做作业。
I didn’t go out as it was raining heavily then. …………… 那时我们没有出去因为雨下得太大。

2.  与表示过去的时间状语从句连用:在过去的某段时间同时发生两个动作,可以都是连续性的动作,则两个动作都可以用过去进行时;也可以是一个连续性动作而另一个短暂性动作,此时用进行时表示连续性动作。时间状语从句由 when、while 引导

Lucy was singing when Lily was dancing.   …………… 露西在唱歌,同时莉莉在跳舞。
The boys were playing football, while the girls were reading in classroom.
男孩们在踢足球而女孩们在教室读书。
 
They were listening the music when I came in.   …………… 当我进来时她们正在听音乐。
The thief was picking up the money when a bell rang suddenly.
小偷在捡钱的时候突然门铃响了。

3.  表示从过去的某个时间看来是将要发生的动作,一般用于下列动词:arrive, go, come, leave,start, return, work, sleep, stay, do, have, wear 等表示移动方向的动词

He asked me when I was leaving.   …………… 他问我什么时候出发。
She said she was going to Spain next week.   …………… 她说下学期要去西班牙。

4.  描写过去的一种状态,或重复的动作,具有某种感情色彩(喜欢、满意、厌倦),常与 always, forever, continually, constantly 连用

He was constantly thinking about mathematics .   …………… 过去他总在思考数学。
LIly was always forgetting the number.   …………… 以前莉莉总是记不住数字号码。

练习. I first met Lisa three years ago when we ________ at a redio station together.

A. have worked B. had been working
C. were working D. had worked
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)