以 L 开头的数学词汇 | 玄数

2012-10-07
Leap Year     闰年
A year that contains 366 days, with February 29 as an additional day: occurring in years whose last two digits are evenly divisible by four, except for centenary years not divisible by 400.

lease     租契,出租
To have a legal agreement in which someone pays you money to use a building, land, or equipment belonging to you for a specific period of time.

least     最小
Smallest in size, amount, degree, etc.

least common denominator / lowest common denominator     最小公分母
The least common multiple of the denominators of a set of fractions: The least common denominator of 1/3 and 1/4 is 12.

least common multiple / lowest common multiple    最小公倍数
The smallest number that a group of numbers can be divided into exactly. For example: 12 is the least common multiple of 2, 3, 4, and 6, 20 is the least common multiple of 2, 5, 10, and 20.

lemma     引理;论点
A proposition that is assumed to be true in order to test the validity of another proposition.

length     长度

  • The measurement of the extent of something along its greatest dimension.
  • A piece, often of a standard size, that is normally measured along its greatest dimension.

less than     比 … 小
A smaller amount of. < like terms / similar terms    同类项
Terms that contain the same unknown factors and the same powers of these factors, differ only in their coefficients or sign or are identical; for example, the similar terms in the polynomial x2y – 2xy + 3xy2 – 5x2y are “x2y” and “–5x2y”.

limit     极限

  • A number such that the value of a given function remains arbitrarily close to this number when the independent variable is sufficiently close to a specified point or is sufficiently large. The limit of 1/x is zero as x approaches infinity; the limit of (x − 1)2 is zero as x approaches 1.
  • A number such that the absolute value of the difference between terms of a given sequence and the number approaches zero as the index of the terms increases to infinity.
  • One of two numbers affixed to the integration symbol for a definite integral, indicating the interval or region over which the integration is taking place and substituted in a primitive, if one exists, to evaluate the integral.

line     线

  • Any straight one-dimensional geometrical element whose identity is determined by two points. A line segment lies between any two points on a line.
  • A set of points (x, y) that satisfies the equation y = mx + c, where m is the gradient and c is the intercept with the y-axis.

line graph     线图
A graph in which successive points representing the value of a variable at selected values of the independent variable are connected by straight lines.

line of best fit     最佳拟合线,最适线
The straight line running among the points of a scatter diagram about which the amount of scatter is smallest, as defined, for example, by the least squares method.

line segment     线段
A finite section of a line.

linear equation     线性方程
The case in which the number of equations coincides with the number of unknowns is encountered most frequently. One linear equation in one unknown has the form ax = b. When a ≠ 0, the number b/a will be its solution.
Several linear equations in the same unknowns form a system of linear equations.
线性方程组

linear scale / uniform scale    线性标尺,线性标度尺
A scale in which equal distances correspond to equal numerical values.

liquidity     流动性
The ability or ease with which assets can be converted into cash.

litre / liter     升
A unit of liquid capacity equal to the volume of one kilogram of distilled water at 4°C and equivalent to 1.0567 U.S.

locus     轨迹
The set or configuration of all points whose coordinates satisfy a single equation or one or more algebraic conditions.

logarithm     对数
The power to which a base, such as 10, must be raised to produce a given number. If nX = a, the logarithm of a, with n as the base, is x; symbolically, logn a = x. For example, 103 = 1,000; therefore, log10 1,000 = 3. The kinds most often used are the common logarithm (base 10), the natural logarithm (base e), and the binary logarithm (base 2).

logarithmic function     对数函数
A function defined by y = lognx, especially when the base n, is equal to e, the base of natural logarithms.
Logarithmic Function

long division     长除法
A method of dividing one number by another in which all the stages involved are written down.