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## 以 s 开头的数学词汇

2012-10-08
sample   样本
A set of data or elements drawn from a larger population and analyzed to estimate the characteristics of that population.

scale   规模，尺度，比例，比例尺，天平

• A proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of a representation to that which it represents: a world map with a scale of 1:4,560,000.
• A system of notation in which the values of numerical expressions are determined by their places relative to the chosen base of the system.
• A balance or any of various other instruments or devices for weighing

scale drawing   缩尺图

scalene triangle   不等边三角形
A triangle whose sides are all of different lengths.

scatter plot, scatter graph, scatter chart, scattergram, scatter diagram  散点图
A type of plot or mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for typically two variables for a set of data. scientific notation   科学记数法
A way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form, multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power, as 1385.62 written as 1.386 × 103.

seasons   季度
One of the four natural divisions of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, beginning astronomically at an equinox or solstice, but geographically at different dates in different climates.

secant   正割；割线

• A straight line intersecting a curve.
• A trigonometric function that in a right-angled triangle is the ratio of the length of the hypotenuse to that of the adjacent side; the reciprocal of cosine.

second   秒，第二

• A unit of time that is equal to 1/60th of a minute.
• The ordinal number assigned to item number two in a series

second hand   秒针
The hand that indicates the seconds on a clock or watch.

section   部分, 剖面图

• Any of the parts into which sth is divided.
• A drawing or diagram of sth as it would look if it were cut from top to bottom or from one side to the other.

sector   扇形, 磁区

• The portion of a circle bounded by two radii and the included arc.
• A measuring instrument consisting of two graduated arms hinged together at one end.
• A portion of a storage device in computer that making up the smallest addressable unit of information.

sector graph   扇形图；圆形分格统计图表
A graph is presented which shows the expenditures, revenue, and fiscal or some other informations. The data would be presented by divide a circle into several sectors, and usually in percentages, which are amounts that are part of a whole – the most used percentage amount is out of 100. segment   线段, 弓形

• The portion of a line between any two points on the line. Also called line segment.
• The portion of a sphere cut off by two parallel planes.
• The area bounded by a chord and the arc of a curve subtended by the chord.

semi-major axis   长半轴
One-half the major axis of an ellipse; the distance from the center of an ellipse to one end. The major axis is the longer or longest axis of an ellipse or ellipsoid.

semi-minor axis   短半轴
One-half the minor axis of an ellipse. The minor axis is the axis of an ellipse that is perpendicular to the major axis at a point equidistant from the foci.

semicircle / semicircumference   半圆
One half of a circle.

sentence   句子
A grammatical unit of one or more words that expresses an independent statement, question, request, command, exclamation, etc, usually containing a subject and a verb.

sequence   数列
an ordered set of numbers or other mathematical entities in one-to-one correspondence with the set of positive integers.

set   集合
A collection of distinct elements having specific common properties.

• {a, e, i, o, u} is the set consisting of the vowels of the alphabet.
• {1, 2, 3, … 100} is the set of the first 100 positive integers.
• The set of all real numbers that are greater than 1 can be written as either {x | x∈R and x>1} or {x : x∈R and x>1}.

shape   形状
A geometric form, e.g. a square, triangle, cone, or cube.

side   边, 侧面

• Any line segment forming part of the perimeter of a plane geometric figure.
• One of the flat surfaces of sth that is not the top or bottom, front or back.

side view   侧面图
A view of sth from the side.

sign   符号
A symbol indicating an operation.

+, -, ×, ÷, =, >, <, { }, //, ⊥, ≌, ⊙, Rt△, Ø, U, ∩

similar   相似
Having corresponding angles equal and all corresponding sides in the same ratio. sine   正弦

• In a right triangle, the ratio of the length of the side opposite an acute angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
• A trigonometric function equal to the ratio of the ordinate of the end point of the arc to the radius vector of this end point, the origin being at the center of the circle on which the arc lies and the initial point of the arc being on the x-axis. Abbreviation: sin.

size   大小，尺寸
The physical dimensions, proportions, magnitude, or extent of an object.

skip counting   跳跃计数
A mathematics technique taught as a kind of multiplication in reform mathematics textbooks such as TERC. In older textbooks, this technique is called counting by twos (threes, fours, etc.). In skip counting by twos, a person can count to 10 by only naming every other number: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. Combining the base (two, in this example) with the number of groups (five, in this example) produces the standard multiplication equation: two multiplied by five equals ten.

slide   滑动
To move along in continuous contact with a smooth or slippery surface.

slope   坡度，斜率

• The tangent of the angle between a given straight line and the x-axis of a system of Cartesian coordinates.
• The derivative of the function whose graph is a given curve evaluated at a designated point. solid   固体, 立体图形

• A substance that resists change in shape, unlike a liquid or gas.
• A three-dimensional (a three-dimensional geometric figure or object) geometric figure or object.

solstice   冬至；夏至
Either of the two times of the year at which the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at midday, marked by the longest and shortest days. When the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator: about June 21, when the sun reaches its northernmost point on the celestial sphere, or about December 22, when it reaches its southernmost point.

sort   数组元素的排序
To arrange things in a set order, especially automatically, as some computer programs do with data.

space   空间
A collection of points that have geometric properties in that they obey set rules , e.g. a Euclidean space that is governed by Euclidean geometry.

speed   速度
The rate at which sb/sth moves or travels. Galileo defined speed as the distance covered per unit of time. In equation form, this is v = d/t.
Instantaneous speed: Speed at some instant, or assumed constant during a very short period of time. sphere   球面, 球体
A solid figure that is completely round, with every point on its surface at an equal distance from the centre.

x2 + y2 + z2 = r2

spiral   螺旋，盘绕

• A curve on a plane that winds around a fixed center point at a continuously increasing or decreasing distance from the point.
• A three-dimensional curve that turns around an axis at a constant or continuously varying distance while moving parallel to the axis.

spring balance   弹簧秤
A device in which an object to be weighed is attached to the end of a helical spring, the extension of which indicates the weight of the object on a calibrated scale.

square   正方形；平方

• A polygon having four equal sides and four equal angles.
• The product obtained when a number or quantity is multiplied by itself: 49 is the square of 7.
• Used after a number to give a measurement of area.

square centimeter   平方厘米

square kilometer   平方千米

square measure   平方面积制

square meter   平方米

square number   平方数

square root   平方根
A number or quantity that when multiplied by itself gives a given number or quantity. The quantities +6 and −6 are square roots of 36 since (+6)×(+6)=36 and (−6)×(−6)=36.

standard form   标准符号法；标准型
A canonical, normal, or standard form of a mathematical object is a standard way of presenting that object as a mathematical expression. The distinction between “canonical” and “normal” forms varies by subfield.

standard normal distribution   标准正态分布
Statistics a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1。

standard notation   标准记数法
General agreements in the way things are written or denoted. The term is generally used in technical and scientific areas of study like mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology, but can also be seen in areas like business, economics and music.

statistics   统计
A branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data.

stem and leaf plot / stemplot   干茎叶图
A histogram-like instrument for presenting quantitative data in a graphic format, which helps visualise its distribution. The data plot presents part of the data value as the stem and the rest of the data value—the leaf—to form groups or classes; the stem and leaf plot is useful for quickly sorting data. straight angle   平角
An angle of 180°.

straight line   直线
A line traced by a point traveling in a constant direction; a line of zero curvature.

substitution   代入
The replacement of a term of an equation by another that is known to have the same value in order to simplify the equation.

subtended angle   包角，对向角
An angle subtended by an arc, line segment, or other curve is one whose two rays pass through the endpoints of the arc.

subtract   减
To take a number or an amount away from another number or amount.

subtraction   减法
It is signified by the minus sign: −

5 – 2 = 3

subtrahend   被减数
A quantity or number to be subtracted from another. In “5 – 2 = 3”, the subtrahend is 5.

successive   连续
Following in an uninterrupted sequence.

sum   和, 金额

• An amount obtained as a result of adding numbers.
• An amount of money.

summary statistics   统计摘要
Summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate the largest amount of information as simply as possible.

supplementary angles   补角
Two angles whose sum is 180°.

surd   无理数，无理数的
Not capable of being expressed in rational numbers, such as √2.

surface   表面

• The boundary of a three-dimensional figure.
• The two-dimensional locus of points located in three-dimensional space.

surface area   表面积
The extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary.

survey   测量
To determine the boundaries, area, or elevations of (land or structures on the earth’s surface) by means of measuring angles and distances, using the techniques of geometry and trigonometry.

symbol   符号
A sign, number, letter, etc. that has a fixed meaning, especially in science, mathematics and music.

symmetry   对称，相似

• The correspondence of the form and arrangement of elements or parts on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or an axis.
• A relationship in which there is correspondence or similarity between entities or parts.
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