虚拟语气 Subjunctive | 玄数

2018-12-27

SAT

If Greg lost 20 pounds, then the radio of Ted’s weight to Greg’s weight would be 4/3. If Ted weights 180 pounds, what was Greg’s initial weight?

A. 115 pounds
B. 125 pounds
C. 135 pounds
D. 145 pounds
E. 155 pounds
Answer
E. 如果Greg减轻20磅,那么Ted对Greg重量比将是4/3。 如果Ted重180磅,那么Greg的初始体重是多少?

一、概念

英语中的语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气、虚拟语气。

虚拟语气表示假设、愿望、建议、请求、命令、推测,不是客观事实。常用于条件从句、宾语从句、名词性从句、定语从句等,通过句子中谓语动词的特殊形式来表示,一般格式是 would / should do

1. 有情态动词时可用 could, might 等代替 should, would

2. 情态动词 + have done 表示含有责备语气

should / ought to have done —— 过去本该做而未做到的事

shouldn’t have done —— 做了原本不该做的事

needn’t have done —— 做了实际不必要做的事

might have done —— 本应该做而未曾做的事

could have done —— 本能够做而实际上没有做的事

二、一些例子

If I were you, I would go to see Mr. Lee at once. 如果我是你,我会立刻去见李医生。 (if 条件句)
If only I had known the news earlier! …………… 要是我早知道这个消息该多好啊! (if only)
 
It is suggested that we should not eat too much meat.
有人建议我们不应该吃那么多的肉。 (主语从句)
 
The doctor’s advice is that you (should) go outside. <医生的建议是你应该到户外去。(表语从句)
 
I agreed to the plan that we go out on a picnic next Sunday.
我同意下周日咱们去野餐的计划。 (同位语从句)
 
I wish I was (were) a bird. …………… 我要是一只小鸟就好了。(wish —— 宾语从句)
 
He was shaking with fright as if he had seen a ghost.
他吓得直哆嗦,就好像看见了鬼一样。( 方式状语从句 )
 
I won’t lend you any money even if I had money.
即使我有钱也不借给你。 (让步状语从句 )

三、 其他

1.  由介词、连词引导:under,   but for,   with,   without,   otherwise

Under such circumstances I would probably done the same.
在如此的环境下,我也会这么做。

2.  定语从句的虚拟语气 :it is (high) time that 从句 —— 早该干某事而已经有些晚了

It is (high) time that we were off. …………… 我们早该离开。

3.  Imagine that —— 想像一下 …

Imagine that we were on a desolate island now. …………… 想像一下我们在一座荒凉的岛上。

4.  would rather 、 had better —— 宁愿

I would rather you paid the money youreslf. …………… 我宁愿你自己付钱。
You had better go to see the police. …………… 你最好去见一下警察。

5.  would rather … than 、 would … rather than —— 与其 … 不如 …, 宁愿 … 也不要 …

I would rather stay at home than (I should) go out for such a bad weather.
这么坏的天气,我宁愿呆在家里也不要外出。
 
He would do anything rather than (he should) live with a shameless woman.
他做任何事情也不愿和一个无耻的女人一起。

虚拟语气 Subjunctive