宾语从句的虚拟语气 | 玄数

2018-12-27

一、wish 虚拟从句

1.  结构 “ I wish ~ ”,~ 本来就是一个句子,这时成了wish的宾语从句,说明与现在 / 过去实际相反;或者将来不太可能实现的愿望。一般可译为:… 就好了, 但愿 … , 可惜 …

 从句动词时态
 现在  did / was, were
 过去  had done ;  would / could have done
 将来  would / should / could / might + do
I wish I was (were) a bird. …………… 我要是一只小鸟就好了。(现在 —— 我不可能是小鸟)
I wish Mary hadn’t taken that book. ……. 要是玛丽没有拿走书本就好了。(过去 —— 她已经拿了)
I wish I could have gone wish you yesterday. …………… 可惜昨天我没跟你一块去。
I wish I could go around the would. …………… 但愿我将来能周游列国。(将来)

2.  wish 与 hope 的区别: hope 用于能够实现的情况,指现在或将来的事物,不指过去之事,后面所接的宾语从句用陈述语气

如果用 hope 表示过去未实现的愿望,主句用 had hoped,从句用 would do

I hope he will succeed. …………… 我希望会成功。
 
I had hoped that you would stay here for some time. …………… 我本希望你在这儿住一段时间。
 
I wish Mary hadn’t taken that book.
I had hoped that Mary wouldn’t take that book.

二、表示愿望、建议、请求、命令的动词

suggest 建议 advice 建议、忠告 propose 提议 insist 坚持
order 命令 command 命令 demand 要求 ask 要求
request 要求 require 要求 desire 渴望 recommend 推荐、劝告
prefer 宁愿 determine 决定 intend 打算 promise 允诺

这些动词后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气:( should )  do

The doctor suggested that she (should) come another day. …………… 医生建议她改天再来。
He insisted that we (should) accept these gifts. . …………… 他坚持要我们收下这些礼物。
The boss demanded that I (should) finish it within a week. . ………. 老板要求我在一周内完成它。

三、it 形式宾语

其真正宾语从句可用虚拟语气:( should )  do

I think it necessary that we ( should ) tell him the news at once.
我认为有必要马上告诉他这个消息。