被动语态的运用 | 玄数

2018-12-29

SAT

At a dinner party each table can seat eight people. If 100 people attend the party, what is the minimum number of tables that are needed?

A. 12
B. 13
C. 14
D. 15
E. 16
Answer
B. 晚宴上的桌子每张可容纳8人. 如果有100人参加聚会,那么所需桌子的最小数目是多少?

一、使用被动语态的场合

1.  不知道或不必要说明动作的执行者

Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  ……………《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
A new house will be build here in the future. …………… 将来会有一座新房子在这儿被建造。

2.  不宜提出动作的执行者

About the project, much has been said but little has been done.
对于这个项目,说的多,做的少。

3.   强调动作的承受者

A wonderful museum has been built in Paris. ……….. 一座无与伦比的博物馆在巴黎建成了。
The first prize was won by Mary. …………… 一等奖由玛丽获得。

4.  It + be done + that 从句,it 作形式主语,意思为据说、据报导

It is reported that the weather tomorrow is very very bad. ………….. 据报导明天的天气相当差。
It is said that the cost of the dress would get higher. …………… 据说服装的价格会升高。

5.   be done + 不定式 to do

He was said to have disclosed the secret. …………… 据说他已经泄漏秘密了。
The bad weather is expected to stop right now. …………… 希望恶劣的天气就将打住吧。

6.   There + be done

There are supposed to be wild animals in the hills. …………… 有人猜想山上会有野生动物。

二、不使用被动语态的时候

1.   不及物动词不能用于被动语态,因为不及物,也就不能接宾语,常见动词 arrive, fall, happen, lean, remain, rise, sleep

The books will arrive tomorrow. …………… 书本明天会到的。
The books will be arrived tomorrow. …………… (×)
 
Leaves fall when the wind blows. …………… 风吹落叶下。
Leaves are fallen when wind blow. …………… (×)

2.   状态动词、表示“变化”的动词不能用于被动语态

感官动词:feel, look, sound, smell, taste, seem

心理、情感动词:believe,wish, consider, doubt, forget, remember, hate, love, mind, keep, remain, prove

属性、关系动词:belong, contain, exist, hold, own

表示“变化”的动词:become, turn, go, get, grow

I dont’ believe god, I dont’ believe ghost. …………… 我不相信神,也不相信鬼。
The color turns to yellow. …………… 颜色变成黄色了。

3.   当宾语是反身代词 ~self, 相互代词 each other, 同源宾语时

I teach myself English. …………… 我自学英语。
We help each other. …………… 我们互相帮忙。

4.  不宜使用被动语态的时候,有 主 + 谓 + 宾 结构,但一般采用主动形式说明,使用被动语态不适宜,甚至有点搞笑,这时主要看宾语和谓语要表达的是什么,是否强调主语

I am doing homework now……………. 我正在做作业。
The homework is being done by me. …………… ???
 
They play football outside the house. …………… 他们在房外踢足球。
Football is played by they outside the house. …………… ???
 
We are watching TV. …………… 我们正在看电视
TV is being watched by us. …………… ???

三、被动语态与系表结构的区别

be + done 可以是被动语态,也可以是系表结构。区别:被动语态表示以主语为承受着的动作;而系表结构则表示主语的特点或状态

The glass is broken by Tom. …………… 玻璃杯被汤姆打破了。
The glass on the desk is broken. …………… 桌上的玻璃杯是破的。

练习

翻译:
space   空间
A collection of points that have geometric properties in that they obey set rules , e.g. a Euclidean space that is governed by Euclidean geometry.

被动语态的运用