各种时态 Tense | 玄数

2018-12-28

一、英语各种时态构成表

英语中的谓语动词表示在不同时间里发生的动作或存在的状态的各种形式,我们称为时态。它包括“时”和“式”两方面:

时 —— 现在,过去,将来,过去将来,说明动作发生的时间,主要以动词前所加的助动词来体现:be, have, will, shall, would, should;

式 —— 一般,进行,完成,完成进行,说明动作的展示方式,通过动词的各种格式来说明:do 动词原形, did 动词过去式, done 过去分词, doing 现在分词

一般 进行 完成 完成进行
现在 do be doing have done have been doing
过去 did was / were doing had done had been doing
将来 will (shall) do will (shall) be doing will (shall) have done will (shall) have been doing
过去将来 would (should) do would (should)

be doing

would (should) have done would (should) have

been doing

二、一些入门例句

1.  时(一般式)

I finish my homework. …………… 我做完作业。(现在)
I finished my homework yesterday afternoon. …………… 我昨天做完了作业。(过去)
I will finished my homework tomorrow. …………… 我将在明天做完作业。 (将来)
I would finished my homework when the teacher came in.
当老师进来后我会做完作业的。 (过去将来)

2.  式(现在时)

I do my homework. …………… 我做作业。(一般)
I am doing my homework now. …………… 我现在正在做作业。(进行)
I have just finished my homework. …………… 我刚刚做完作业了。(完成)
I have been doing my homework all day. …………… 我整天一直在做作业。(完成进行)

3.  简单结合

We are learning English now. …………… 我们正在学英语。(现在进行时)
We were learning English at 9 o’clock. …………… 9点钟时我们在学英语。(过去进行时)
We have learned English for five years. …………… 我们学英语已经五年了。(现在完成时)
We had learned English since we were in Grade one.
我们从一年级起就学英语了。(过去完成时)

三、常用时态简要介绍

1.  一般现在时—— 表示现在的动作和状态,以及普遍真理

I am from China.   …………… 我来自中国。
The earth goes round the sun.   …………… 地球围着太阳转。

2.  一般过去时—— 表示过去的动作和状态

You were busy last night.   …………… 昨晚你很忙啊。
She used to listen jazz after wash.   …………… 她过去常常洗澡后听爵士乐。

3.  现在进行时 —— 表示“正在做 … ”

I am doing homework now.   …………… 我正在做作业。
He isn’t running, he is swimming.   …………… 他不是在跑步,而是在游泳。

4.  过去进行时 —— 过去的某段时间“正在做 … ”

I didn’t go out as it was raining heavily then. …………… 那时我们没有出去因为雨下得太大。
They were listening the music when I came in.   …………… 当我进来时她们正在听音乐。

5.  一般将来时 —— 将来某个时间要发生的动作或者存在的状态

He will visit Mr.Lee tomorrow.   …………… 他会在明天访问李先生。
I am going to learn how to make the ice-cream . …………… 我打算学习做冰激凌。

6.  过去将来时 —— 从过去的某一段时间看来是将要发生的动作或存在的状态

I didn’t know why he would come. …………… 我不知道他为什么会来。
She said she wouldn’t eat meat any more. …………… 她说她不会再吃肉了。

7.  现在完成时 —— 主要说明“做完了 … ”;过去发生的动作对现在的影响

I have just finished my homework. …………… 我刚刚做完作业了。
He has been to NewYork four times. …………… 他到过纽约4次了。

8.  过去完成时 —— 过去的过去:一个动作在过去的某个具体时间之前已经发生、完成

They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
By the end of 2010 the world population had gone up to nearly 7 billion.
到2010年底,世界人口上升到将近70亿。

练习. I first met Lisa three years ago when we ________ at a redio station together.

A. have worked B. had been working
C. were working D. had worked