助动词 Auxiliary Verb | 玄数

2015-05-23

选一选

 What are you doing out of bed, Tom?  You’re  ________ to be asleep.

A.  supposed B.  known C. thought D.  considered
Answer

一、定义

助动词不能单独作谓语,没有词义,但有数、人称的变化,利用它们表示时态、语态、强调和构成否定句、疑问句。助动词有五个:be, shall, will, do, have

二、be

现正式 过去式 现在分词 过去分词
am,is,are was,were being been

1.   be + to do 构成将来时:表示计划、安排;应该或不应该

A new bridge is to be built over the river soon. …………… 就要在河上建一座新桥。
What is to be done? …………… 要做什么?

2.  be + doing (现在分词)构成进行时态

They are playing football. …………… 他们在打篮球。
The bike is being repaired by him. …………… 自行车正被他修理。(被动语态进行时)

3.  be + done ( 过去分词) 构成被动语态

The toy is made in Dongguan, China. …………… 这个玩具是由中国东莞制造的。
The food can be divided into three part. …………… 这些食物可以被分成三份。
About the project, much has been said but little has been done.
对于这个项目,说的多,做的少。(被动语态完成时)

三、do

现正式 过去式 否定式 否定缩略式
do,does did do not,does not, did not don’t, doesn’t, didn’t

1.  构成否定句、疑问句

Do you speak English? …………… 你说英语吗?
Yes, I do. …………… 是的,我说英语。
No, I don’t. …………… 不,我不说英语。
Does LiMing go to school by bus? …………… 李明坐公交车上学的吗?
Yes, he does. …………… 是的,他坐公交车。
No, he doesn’t.  …………… 不,他不坐。
I don’t like jazz. …………… 我不喜欢爵士乐。
She doesn’t look like her mother. …………… 她长得不像妈妈。
We didn’t swim yesterday. …………… 昨天我们没有去游泳。

2.  表示强调、祈使句

Remember, do come here before the party begin! ………..记住,一定要在晚会开始前到这儿。
I do finish the item, Mr. King. But maybe someone destroied it.
我的确完成项目了,金先生。但可能有人把它破坏了。

3.  代替重复出现的动词

I cook as my mother does. …………… 我像妈妈一样煮菜。

四、will, shall

现正式 过去式 否定式
will,shall would,should will not,shall not, would not,should not

won’t, shan’t, wouldn’t, shouldn’t

will,shall 与动词原形构成一般将来时; would,should 构成过去将来时

I will finish my writing next month. …………… 我会在下个月写完的。
They wouldn’t go to the supermarket. …………… 他们不会去超市。

五、have

现正式 过去式 否定式 否定缩略式
have,has
I’ve,You’ve,he’s
had
I’d
have not,has not, had not haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t

have + done ( 过去分词) 构成完成时态

I haven’t watched the TV Wuthering Heights yet. …………. 我没看过电视剧《呼啸山庄》。
I have been waiting for you all day. …………… 我整天一直都在等你啊。

练习. A:What wourld you send to your sister as the Christmas gift?

B:I haven’t decided yet. I ________ send her a hand bag.

A. will B. shall C. may D. must
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)