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## 以 m 开头的数学词汇

2012-10-07
magnitude   大小，数量

• A number assigned to a quantity so that it may be compared with other quantities.
• A property that can be described by a real number, such as the volume of a sphere or the length of a vector.

magic square   魔方, 幻方
A square that contains numbers arranged in equal rows and columns such that the sum of each row, column, and sometimes diagonal is the same.

major arc   优弧
The longer of the two arcs produced by a secant of a circle.

major axis   主轴
The axis of an ellipse that passes through the two foci.

mass   大量；质量

• A large amount or quantity of something.
• A property of matter equal to the measure of the amount of matter contained in or constituting a physical body that partly determines the body’s resistance to changes in the speed or direction of its motion. The mass of an object is not dependent on gravity and therefore is different from but proportional to its weight.

math / maths / mathematics   数学
The systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically.

matrix   矩阵
A rectangular arry of entries displayed in rows and columns and enclosed in brackets. The entries are elements of suitable set, either specified or understood.

maximum   最大值
The greatest quantity or degree reached or recorded; the upper limit of variation.

mean   平均值

• The average value of a set of numbers.
• A number that typifies a set of numbers, such as a geometric mean or an arithmetic mean.

measure / measurement   测量；程度

• A reference standard or sample used for the quantitative comparison of properties.
• The dimensions, quantity, or capacity of something as ascertained by comparison with a standard.

median   中位数; 中线

• The middle number in a given sequence of numbers, taken as the average of the two middle numbers when the sequence has an even number of numbers: 4 is the median of 1, 3, 4, 8, 9.
• A line that joins a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the opposite side.
• The line that joins the midpoints of the nonparallel sides of a trapezoid.

metre / meter   米，公尺；仪表

• The international standard unit of length, approximately equivalent to 39.37 inches. It was redefined in 1983 as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
• Any of various devices designed to measure time, distance, speed, or intensity or indicate and record or regulate the amount or volume, as of the flow of a gas or an electric current.

metric system   公制
A decimal system of units based on the meter as a unit length, the kilogram as a unit mass, and the second as a unit time.

midpoint   中点
The point of a line segment or curvilinear arc that divides it into two parts of the same length.

millennium   千年
A thousand-year period of holiness mentioned in the book of Revelation, during which Jesus and his faithful followers are to rule on earth.

millilitre / milliliter   毫升
A unit for measuring the volume of liquids and gases; a 1 000th of a litre.

million   百万
The cardinal number equal to 106, a thousand times one thousand.

minimum   最低限度；最小量

• The smallest number in a finite set of numbers.
• A value of a function that is less than any other value of the function over a specific interval.

minor 余子式
A determinant associated with a particular element of a given determinant and formed by removing the row and column containing that element.

minor arc   劣弧
An arc that is smaller than a semicircle.

minor axis   短轴
The axis of an ellipse that is perpendicular to the major axis at a point equidistant from the foci, the shorter or shortest axis.

minuend   被减数
The number from which another number is to be subtracted. In the equation 50 – 16 = 34, the minuend is 50.

minus   减; 负号; 负值

• Reduced by the subtraction of; less: 10 – 4 = 6, ten minus four is six.
• The minus sign: -.
• A negative quantity.

minute   分钟

• A unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour, or 60 seconds.
• A unit of angular measurement equal to one sixtieth of a degree, or 60 seconds. Also called arcminute, minute of arc.

minute hand   分针
The long hand on a clock or watch that indicates minutes.

mirror image   镜象
An object that corresponds to another object in the same way as it would correspond to its image in a mirror.

mixed numbers 带分数
Mixed numbers contain a combination of an integer and a proper fraction, such as 4½.

model   模型

• A representation, usually on a smaller scale, of a device, structure, etc.
• An interpretation of a formal system in which all the theorems of that system are true.

moire pattern   波纹图形；网纹状图形

monomial   单项式

month   月

multiple   倍数

multiplicand   被乘数

multiplication   乘法

multiplication tables   乘法表

multiplicative identity   乘法单位

multiplicative inverse   倒数

multiplier   乘数

multiply   乘

mutually exclusive events   互斥事件

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