被动语态 be done | 玄数

2018-12-28

SAT

A sphere is created with half the radius of the original sphere. What is the radius of the volume of the original sphere to the volume of the new sphere?

A. 1:8
B. 8:1
C. 2:1
D. 1:2
E. 4:1
Answer
B. 创建一个半径为原始球体半径的一半的球体。 原始球体的体积半径与新球体的体积比是多少?球的体积比是半径比的立方。

一、语态

语态是动词的一种形式,用来说明主语和谓语的关系。主动语态表示主语是谓语的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语的承受者。

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop. …. 主动 —— 他们在那个商店销售《谁动了我的奶酪》
Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.  …….. 被动 —— 《谁动了我的奶酪》在那个商店有售。
He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

二、被动语态的构成 —— be + done过去分词

被动语态体现于谓语动词的组成:be + done,be 是助动词,有人称、数、时态的变化;done 是过去分词。

1.  细分原句主动语态时的 主 + 谓 + 宾 结构,改为被动语态时:原来的宾语置首,变为主语;动词 do 改为 be + done;原来的主语置后变为宾格形式,并在前 + by 来体现被 “谁” 怎么样了,此时“by + 原主语的宾格”构成介词短语。状语不变

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop.
主语 谓语 宾语 状语
Who Moved My Cheese is sold by them in that shop.
原宾语 谓语 宾格(介词短语) 状语

2.  时态必须和原来主动时的一致

He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

三、被动语态的时态

一般 进行 完成
现在 am / is / are + done am / is / are + being done have / has + been done
过去 was / were + done was / were + being done had + been done
将来 will / shall be  + done will / shall have + been done
过去将来 would / should be  + done would / should have + been done

1.  一般现在时

They sell Who Moved My Cheese in that shop. ………他们在那个商店销售《谁动了我的奶酪》
Who Moved My Cheese is sold in that shop.

2.  一般过去时

Tom bought a computer yesterday. …………… 汤姆昨天买了一部电脑。
A computer was bought by Tom yesterday.

3.  一般将来时

I will build a new house here in the future. …………… 将来我要在这儿建一座新的房子。
A new house will be build here in the future.

4.  一般过去将来时

I would draw pictures when I was a child . …………… 我小时候总喜欢画画。
Pictures would be drawn by me when I was a child

5.  现在进行时

He is repairing the bike.
The bike is being repaired by him……………. 他正在修理自行车。

6.  过去进行时

I was reading the book then. …………… 那时我正在读书。
The book was being read by me then.

7.  现在完成时

The workers has built a wonderful museum. …………… 工人们建成了一座无与伦比的博物馆。
A wonderful museum has been built by the workers.

8.  过去完成时

They had finished all the food before I arrived!…………. 在我来之前他们已吃完所有东西了!
All the food had been finished before I arrived!

9.  将来完成时

I will have finished this article tomorrow. …………… 明天我将完成这篇文章。
This article will have been finished by me tomorrow.

练习

翻译:
variable   变量

  • A quantity capable of assuming any of a set of values.
  • A symbol, especially ‘x’, ‘y’, or ‘z’, that is used usually in connection with quantifiers to represent individuals in a universe of discourse.
  • Computing a named unit of storage that can be changed to any of a set of specified values during execution of a program. (Computer Science)

被动语态 be done