谓语 Predicate | 玄数

2018-12-26

一、作用

谓语在句子中体现主语“做什么”、“是什么” 或 “怎么样”,一般用的是行为动词,还有系动词 + 表语。而助动词和情态动词不能单独作谓语动词使用,但他们能起“协助”作用,与行为动词一块使用,体现不同的人称和时态

行为动词 work    study    swim    give    open    paint    put
系动词 be    look    seem    taste     become    turn    keep    stay    remain
助动词 be    shall     will       do     have
情态动词 can      may       must

1.  行为动词

He plays football well.  ……………..他足球踢得好。
This book contains all the information you need. …………… 这本书包含了所有你需要的信息。

2.  系动词 + 表语

Her father was a doctor five years ago. …………… 五年前他爸爸曾是一名医生。
The old man looks very weak. …………… 那位老人看起来很虚弱。
She remained silent all night. …………… 整晚她都保持沉默。

3.  助动词 + 行为动词

They are playing football. …………… 他们在打篮球。(进行时)
The toy is made in Dongguan, China. …………… 这个玩具是由中国东莞制造的。(被动语态)
Tom will buy an Intel CPU tomorrow. …………… 汤姆明天会买一个英特尔处理器。

4.  情态动词 + 行为动词

I can swim. …………… 我会游泳。
She won’t lend me the money. …………… 她不会借钱给我。
I shall stay at home tomorrow for the bad weather. …………… 因为坏天气,明天我呆在家里。

二、谓语的时态

1. 英语各种时态构成表

一般 进行 完成 完成进行
现在 do be doing have done have been doing
过去 did was / were doing had done had been doing
将来 will (shall) do will (shall) be doing will (shall) have done will (shall) have been doing
过去将来 would (should) do would (should)

be doing

would (should) have done would (should) have

been doing

2.  详细介绍请参考 “时态 Tense

I am missing you dreadfully.   …………… 我极其思念你。
By the end of 2010 the world population had gone up to nearly 7 billion. 到2010年底,世界人口上升到将近70亿。

三、谓语的语态

1.  主动和被动

He is repairing the bike. …………… 主动 —— 他正在修理自行车。
The bike is being repaired by him.  …………… 被动 —— 自行车正被他修理。

2.   相对于汉语,英语使用被动语态的情况要多,详细介绍请参考 “被动语态 Passive Voice

一般 进行 完成
现在 am / is / are + done am / is / are + being done have / has + been done
过去 was / were + done was / were + being done had + been done
将来 will / shall be  + done will / shall have + been done
过去将来 would / should be  + done would / should have + been done

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