介词 Preposition | 玄数

2015-11-02

选一选

 Shirley, a real book lover, often brings home many books to read _________ the library.

A.  in B.  for C.  by D.  from
Answer

一、 分类

介词是一种用来表示词与词、词与句之间的关系的虚词,在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。

1.  简单介词:由一个单词构成的介词,如:at ,   by ,   from ,   on

2.  以 ing 结尾的介词,这类介词由现在分词转变而来:including ,   consedering

3.  合成介词,由两个单词连写而成:into ,   within ,   upon

二、常用介词

<a>.  about ,    above ,    across ,    after ,    against ,    along ,    among ,    around ,    as ,    at

1.  about

关于: What are you talking about?

大约: How long is the hospital from here? —— It’s about 100 meters, sir.

在附近: I lose my book somewhere about the lake.

短语 —— be about to(正要 …),  what about(你觉得 … 怎么样?),   how about(怎么样?)

2.  above

在 … 的上面:The moon is now above the trees.

高于,超过: The number is above 10 thousand.

短语 —— above all(尤其,最重要的是)

3.  across

横过,穿越:Can you swim across the river?

交叉:The two lines cut across each other.

短语 —— cut across(径直穿过,抄近路走)

4.  after

在 … 之后(时间):He will return after three o’clock.

在 … 后面(方位):Shut the door after you please.

短语 —— after all(毕竟),  day after day(日复一日)

5.  against

逆向:We sailed against the wind.

反对:Public opinion is strongly against his visit to the country.

对 … 不利:I have said nothing against him.

防御:The building was insured against fire.

短语 —— lean against(靠在…,倚在…)

6.  along

沿着,顺着:Excuse me, where is the museum please ? —— Walk along the street and then turn left at 1st corner.

短语 —— along with(与 … 在一起)

7.  among

在 … 之中(>2):A great of bees are flying among the flowers.

短语 —— among others(尤其,格外)

8.  around

到处,周围:I’ll send someone to show you around.

大约,在 … 附近:It’ll be finished around Christmas.

短语 —— 转身,离去

9.  as

像,如同:The old woman was dressed as a young lady.

作为,以 … 身份: As a student, we should learn hard.

短语 —— as far as(直到),  as for(至于,关于),  as good as(和 … 一样),  as if / as though(好像),   as long as(只要),  as much(也,同样),  as much as(差不多),  as often as(每当),  as soon as(立刻),  as to(至于,关于),  as well(也,还),  as well as(不但,而且),  as yet(迄今为止)

10.  at

在 … 地点:Tom is at home.

在 … 时刻:I arrived London at 6:30 afternoon.

在 … 方面:He is an expert at troubleshooting.

以 … 价格、速度: The cake is sold at 1dollar a dozen.

短语 —— at all(根本,完全),  at any cost(无论如何,不惜任何代价),  at best(至多),  at least(至少),  at most(至多)

 

<b>.  before ,    behind ,    below ,    beside ,   besides ,    between ,    beyond ,    but ,    by

1.  before

在 … 之前(时间): You should back home before 9 o’clock today.

在 … 前面(方位): A lazy dog is sleeping before the gate.

短语 —— before long(不久),   long before(很久以前)

2.  behind

在 … 后面(方位): There is someone behind the tree.

落后于:The others are a long way behind.

短语 —— behind with / in(拖延)

3.  below

在 … 下面(方位):Her skirt came below her knees.

低于,次于(身份地位):His position in the company is below hers.

短语 —— below the moon(月下,尘世)

4.  beside

在旁边:A little girl sat down beside Tom.

无关,离题:That’s beside the point.

5.  besides

除 … 之外:There had come 50 people besides you.

6.  between

在…之间(指时间、空间、顺序等):These books were written between 1736 and 1770.

介乎…之间(数量、距离、程度等): He is a man between sixty and seventy.

链接在…之间:It’s about 1.2 km between these two hills.

短语 —— between you and me(只有我们两人知道,私下说)

7.  beyond

在…的那一边:Beyond the mountains is a thick forest.

超出:The situation is beyond his control.

除…之外:He did nothing beyong what he was told to do.

短语 —— beyond control(无法控制)

8.  but

除…以外(用于nothing,nobody,who,all 等词后面):No one saw it but me.

短语 —— but for(要不是,如果没有),   nothing but(只不过是),  anything but(绝非),  all but(几乎,差不多),  cannot but(只好)

9.  by

在旁边:He is sitting by the lake.

通过,经过:They came by the nearest road.

以 … 方式:I got the news by ” New York Times “.

在 … 之前(时间):We had to get there by evening.

被,由:The homework was assigned by the teacher.

根据,按照:Never judge a man by his look.

短语 —— step by step(逐步),  by chance(偶然),  by far(最,到目前为止),  by way of(经由)

 

<d>.  down ,   during

1. down

沿着:Walk directly down the road and you’ll get to the square.

在 …下方:Their house is half-way down the hill.

短语 —— get down(下来,写下),  bring down(使倒下,使减少),  break down(失败,故障),  get down(下来,写下),  look down on(轻视,看不起),  put down(放下,镇压)

2.  during

在 … 期间:A great people die during the World War II.

 

<e>.  except

除 … 之外:We go there every day except Sunday.

短语 —— except for(除 … 之外,要不是由于)

 

<f>.  for ,   from

1.  for

为了:What I have done that’s only for you.

替代:We used boxes for chairs.

对于,在 … 方面:
I am too old for the job.

因为:I won’t go out today for the bad weather.

短语 —— for all(尽管,虽然),  for ever(永远),  for good(永久地)

2.  from

从 … 起:
She is singing from morning to night.

来自: Where do you come from?

依据:I judge it’s wrong from what she told me a week ago.

区别:He is old enough to know right from wrong.

排斥,阻止:The pill will relieve you from pain.

由 … 制成(不可见原材料):The wire is made from rice.

短语 —— from A to Z(从头到尾),  from now on(从现在开始),  far from(差得远)

练习. .  He sold his car ________ $2000.

A. by B. with C. for D. in
答案(把鼠标放上即可看到)