状语从句的虚拟语气 | 玄数

2018-12-27

一、as if ,  as though

1.  其意为“好像,似乎”,引导的是方式状语从句,用虚拟语气,从句的谓语形式与 wish 后接的宾语从句相同

 从句动词时态
 现在  did / was, were
 过去  had done ;  would / could have done
 将来  would / should / could / might + do
She treats him as if he were a stranger.
她待他如陌生人。 ( 与现在事实相反 —— 他并不是陌生人 )
 
He was shaking with fright as if he had seen a ghost.
他吓得直哆嗦,就好像看见了鬼一样。( 与过去事实相反 —— 他不可能见到鬼 )
 
She cried as if her heart would break.
她哭得好像她的心都要碎了。( 与将来事实相反 —— 她的心是不会碎的 )

2.  如果主句的谓语动词是系动词:如 be, feel, look, seem, sound 等,那么 as if, as though 引导的是表语从句

She looks as though she were ill. …………… 她看起来好像病了。 (现在)
I felt as if I had been with you all along. …………… 我柑橘好像我一直跟你在一起似的。 (过去)
It looks as if it might rain. …………… 好像天要下雨。(与将来可能相反)

3.  as if 引导的表语从句也可以表示真实情况,用陈述语气

It looks as if it is going to rain. …………… 天好像要下雨了。
It looks as if it isn’t clean enough to bathe here . …………… 看起来海水好像不干净,不能游泳。

二、even if ,  even though

1.  其引导的是让步状语从句,用虚拟语气,表示虚拟的让步, 从句的谓语形式与 if 条件句相同

从句 主句
 现在    did / were    would / should do
 过去    had done    would / should have done
 将来    did / were    would / should do
   were to do
   should do
I won’t lend you any money even if I had money.
即使我有钱也不借给你。 ( 与现在事实相反 —— 我没有钱 )
 
Even though I had been with you then, I could not have done much for you.
即使当时我和你在一起,也不能为你做更多的事。( 与过去事实相反 —— 那时候我们不在一起)
 
Even if one graduated from college, he should still continue to learn.
即使大学毕业了他也要继续学习。 (将来的虚拟)

2.  如果 even if ,  even though 所说的是能办到的事,表示的是真实情况,就不用虚拟语气而用陈述语气

Even though he tried, he still lagged behind other runners.
尽管他努力了,仍落在其他赛跑者之后。 (过去)
 
I will go out tomorrow even if it rain. …………… 即使明天下雨,我还是外出。 (将来)

三、 no matter ( what、 who、 when、 which、 where、 how ) ,  ~ever

其引导的是让步状语从句,一般使用陈述语气,但也可用虚拟语气:might / may do,might 和 may 有时可省略;主句所用谓语的时态不限

No matter what happens, I will always love you.  =  Whatever happens, I’ll always love you.
无论发生什么,我将永远爱你。 (陈述)
 
Whatever the difficulities (may) be, we must go on working.
不论有什么困难,我们必须继续工作。 (虚拟)

三、 that ,  so that ,  in order that ,  for fear that ( = lest ) ,  in case

其引导的是目的状语从句,用虚拟语气: can / could / may / might / should do;如果从句时否定式,则常用 should no do

We got up early so that we could catch the first bus. …………… 我们起床早,为了赶上头班车。
I buy books on the internet in order that I can save money. …………… 我在网上买书为了我能省钱。
He study hard lest he (should) fail. …………… 他努力学习,唯恐失败。